A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, Volume 14
by Robert Kerr
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Three or four days after us, two Dutch Indiamen arrived here from Holland; after a passage of between four and five months, in which one lost, by the scurvy and other putrid diseases, 150 men, and the other 41. They sent, on their arrival, great numbers to the hospital in very dreadful circumstances. It is remarkable that one of these ships touched at Port Praya, and left it a month before we arrived there; and yet we got here three days before her. The Dutch at the Cape having found their hospital too small for the reception of their sick, were going to build a new one at the east part of the town; the foundation of which was laid with great ceremony while we were there.

By the healthy condition of the crews of both ships at our arrival, I thought to have made my stay at the Cape very short. But, as the bread we wanted was unbaked, and the spirit, which I found scarce, to be collected from different parts out of the country, it was the 18th of November before we had got every thing on board, and the 22d before we could put to sea. During this stay the crews of both ships were served every day with fresh beef or mutton, new-baked bread, and as much greens as they could eat. The ships were caulked and painted; and, in every respect, put in as good a condition as when they left England. Some alterations in the officers took place in the Adventure. Mr Shank the first lieutenant having been in an ill state of health ever since we sailed from Plymouth, and not finding himself recover here, desired my leave to quit, in order to return home for the re- establishment of his health. As his request appeared to be well-founded, I granted him leave accordingly, and appointed Mr Kemp, first lieutenant in his room, and Mr Burney, one of my midshipmen, second, in the room of Mr Kemp.

Mr Forster, whose whole time was taken up in the pursuit of natural history and botany, met with a Swedish gentleman, one Mr Sparman, who understood something of these sciences, having studied under Dr Linnaeus. He being willing to embark with us, Mr Forster strongly importuned me to take him on board, thinking that he would be of great assistance to him in the course of the voyage. I at last consented, and he embarked with us accordingly, as an assistant to Mr Forster, who bore his expences on board, and allowed him a yearly stipend besides.[10]

Mr Hodges employed himself here in drawing a view of the Cape, town, and parts adjacent, in oil colours, which, was properly packed up with some others, and left with Mr Brandt, in order to be forwarded to the Admiralty by the first ship that should sail for England.

[1] The reader is desired to remember, that F. placed at a note refers to Forster's Observations; G.F. to the younger Forster's Account of the Voyage; and W. to Mr Wales' works. For notes signed E. the editor, as formerly, must hold himself responsible. Thus much was thought advisable to save unnecessary repetition. This opportunity is taken of stating some circumstances respecting the two former works, of consequence to the parties concerned, and not uninteresting to the general reader. We are informed in the preface to G.F.'s work, that when his father was sent out to accompany Captain Cook as a naturalist, no particular rules were prescribed for his conduct, as they who appointed him conceived he would certainly endeavour to derive the greatest possible advantages to learning from his voyage; that he was only directed therefore, to exercise all his talents, and to extend his observations to every remarkable object; and that from him was expected a philosophical history of the voyage, on a plan which the learned world had not hitherto seen executed. His father, accordingly, he says, having performed the voyage, and collected his observations, in conformity to such opinion and expectations, proceeded, on his return home, to accomplish the remaining task allotted to him—writing the history of the voyage. It was first proposed, we are told, that a single narrative should be composed from his and Cook's papers, the important observations of each being inserted, and ascertained by appropriate marks. Forster, in consequence, received a part of Cook's journal, and drew up several sheets as a specimen; but this plan was soon desisted from, as it was thought more expedient that the two journals should be kept separate. In fartherance, then, of this design, it is said, an agreement was drawn up on the 13th of April, 1776, between Captain Cook and Mr Forster, in the presence, and with the signature, of the Earl of Sandwich, which specified the particular parts of the relations to be prepared by each, and confirmed to both, jointly, the gift of the valuable plates engraved at the expence of the Admiralty, and generously bestowed on these two gentlemen in equal shares. Mr F. soon afterwards presented a second specimen of his narrative to the Earl of Sandwich, but was surprised to find that it was quite disapproved of, though at last he was convinced that, as the word "narrative" had been omitted in the above-mentioned agreement, he was not entitled to compose a connected account of the voyage. He was, moreover, informed, that if he chose to preserve his claim to half of the profits arising from the plates, he must conform to the letter of that agreement. In this he acquiesced for the benefit of his family; and accordingly, though he had understood it was intended he should write the history of the voyage, he found himself confined to the publication of his unconnected philosophical observations. G. Forster adds, it hurt him much to see the chief intent of his father's mission defeated, and the public disappointed in their expectations of a philosophical recital of facts; however, as he himself had been appointed his father's assistant, and was bound by no such agreement as that which restrained him, he thought it incumbent to attempt such a narrative as a duty to the public, and in justice to the ample materials he had collected during the voyage. "I was bound," he concludes, "by no agreement whatever; and that to which my father had signed, did not make him answerable for my actions, nor, in the most distant manner, preclude his giving me assistance. Therefore, in every important circumstance I had leave to consult his journals, and have been enabled to draw up my narrative with the most scrupulous attention to historical truth." Such is the defence which Mr G. Forster sets up in behalf of a conduct, which it is certain was very differently construed by the patrons of the expedition, whose indignant opinions were so far regarded by the public, as to render the residence of both father and son in England no longer pleasant or respectable. They left it and went to the continent; though it is likely they were the more induced to do so by certain family difficulties, and the ill effects of the father's turbulent temper, which speedily lost him the friends his uncommon abilities and erudition had procured. The reader who desires information respecting these two singular men, and the sentiments entertained in general as to their improper conduct in the matter of the publication, may turn to the Supplement to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. It is, however, but justice to inform him, that the account there given, bears decisive indications of party bias in more senses than one; and that the strongest assertions it contains as to the share which Forster the father had in the publication, are not supported on evidence sufficient for the conviction of any unprejudiced mind. The writer of that article, as of several others in that very valuable publication, appears to have given up his imagination to the prevailing terrors of the times, and to have become, at last, almost incapable of discriminating betwixt personal delinquency and epidemic immorality—the misfortunes incident to individuals in every age or country, and the evils arising out of the erroneous creeds and systems of a particular time and place. A single quotation from the article now alluded to, may be conducive to the reader's favourable acceptance of that portion of the Forsters' labours from which it is proposed to supply many of the succeeding notes. "An account of the voyage was published in English and German, by George Forster; and the language, which is correct and elegant, was undoubtedly his; but those who knew both him and his father, are satisfied that the matter proceeded from the joint stock of their observations and reflections. Several parts of the work, and particularly the elaborate investigations relative to the languages spoken by the natives of the South Sea Islands, and the speculations concerning their successive migrations, are thought to be strongly impressed with the genius of the elder Forster." Before concluding this note, it may be proper to say, that Mr Wales conceiving Mr G. Forster had made some misrepresentations of certain facts, wrote some remarks upon his book, to which Mr F. replied. This is said on the authority of the Biog. Brit. for the writer himself has never seen either of the productions alluded to. That work very candidly admits, that the Forsters' books contain much curious and useful information. It is probable, then, that the readers in general will concur with the writer in discarding entirely all consideration of moral conduct as to the agreement, and availing themselves of whatever of utility or amusement the publication in question can afford.—E.

[2] The same day we observed several flying fishes, pursued by bonitos and dolphins, rising out of the water in order to escape from them. They were flying in all directions, and not against the wind only, as Mr Kalm seems to think. Neither did they confine themselves to a strait-lined course, but frequently were seen to describe a curve. When they met the top of a wave as they skimmed along the surface of the ocean, they passed through, and continued their flight beyond it. From this time, till we left the torrid zone, we were almost daily amused with the view of immense shoals of these fishes, and now and then caught one upon our decks, when it had unfortunately taken its flight too far, and was spent by its too great elevation above the surface of the sea."—G.F.

[3] "About this time, the captain ordered the ship to be fumigated with gunpowder and vinegar, having taken notice that all our books and utensils became covered with mould, and all our iron and steel, though ever so little exposed, began to rust. Nothing is more probable than that the vapours, which now filled the air, contained some saline particles, since moisture alone does not appear to produce such an effect."—G.F.

There can be no doubt that the atmospherical air is capable of sustaining marine salt in a state of solution, and of bearing it off to great distances on land, where it serves important purposes in animal and vegetable economy. The reader will be pleased with some remarks on the subject in Robison's Account of Black's Lectures. The air in the vessel, then, it will be readily imagined will contain it, and hence, as it is known that it is gradually decomposed by iron, the rust that was observed. The process of corroding the iron, &c. as it is commonly called, would be much accelerated by moisture, as the muriatic acid acts most powerfully on bodies capable of decomposing water; and it is no less certain, that the heat of a tropical climate would aid the operation. But it is difficult to explain how any benefit could be derived from the fumigation said to be practised by Cook on this occasion, otherwise than by producing dry warm air. Indeed, many persons will imagine that the circumstances required nothing more than free ventilation, and the occasional use of fires to destroy moisture. Mr Forster takes particular notice of what is mentioned in the text about the fermentation of the inspissated juice of malt, or, as he calls it, essence of beer; and he says, that, by the advice of his father, a vessel strongly fumigated with sulphur was filled with it, and prevented the fermentation for a few days. He does not explain on what principle, and perhaps was not acquainted with it. The fact is, that sulphuric acid, which is produced by the burning of sulphur, has the power of checking, or altogether destroying, the fermentation of substances. In the present case, it seems, enough of it had not been produced to answer the purpose effectually. Some other acids have the same power. Hence the desideratum mentioned in the text is easily supplied. The juice, it may be thought, will be changed by the addition of a strong acid, and rendered unserviceable. There can be no doubt, however, that when it is required for the purpose of making beer, &c. means could be used to neutralize the acid that had been added to it, without materially, or at all, affecting the juice itself.—E.

[4] "When we made application to this indolent Don, by the governor's direction, to be supplied with cattle, he indeed promised to furnish us with as many as we wanted, but we never got more than a single lean bullock. The company perfectly tyrannizes over the inhabitants, and sells them wretched merchandize at exorbitant prices."—G.F.

This gentleman says there are very few white people in the Cape Verd Islands; that he did not see more than five or six at St Jago, including the governor, commandant, and company's agent; and that in some of the islands even the governors and priests are taken from among the blacks. He draws a moving picture of the wretched condition of these forlorn islanders, under the indolent and yet oppressive government of the court of Lisbon. Mr G.F. be it known, was peculiarly sharp-sighted in discovering, and vehement in inveighing against, every impolitic violation of human liberty. In the judgments of some persons, he had imbibed too readily the intoxicating beverage of revolutionary France. Many strong heads, it is certain, were not proof against its effects.—E.

[5] "Before leaving Port Praya, Captain Cook invited the governor- general and the commandant to dinner, and we staid on board in order to act as interpreters on this occasion. The captain sent them his own boat; but when it came on shore the governor begged to be excused, because he was always affected with sickness on board any vessel, whether at sea or in harbour. The commandant promised to come, but having at first neglected to ask the governor's leave, the latter retired to take his siesta, (or afternoon's repose,) and no one ventured to disturb him."—G.F.

[6] "The heavy rains entirely soaked the plumage of a poor swallow, which had accompanied us for several days past; it was obliged, therefore, to settle on the railing of the quarter-deck, and suffered itself to be caught. From the history of this bird, which was of the common species, we may deduce the circumstances that bring solitary land-birds a great way out to sea. It seems to be probable, that they begin with following a ship, from the time she leaves the land; that they are soon lost in the great ocean, and are thus obliged to continue close to the ship, as the only solid mass in this immense fluid expanse. If two or more ships are in company, it is also easy to account for the expression of meeting with land-birds at a great distance from land, because they may happen to follow some other ship from the shore, than that which carries the observer; thus they may escape observation for a day or two, or perhaps longer, and when noticed, are supposed to be met with at sea. However, great storms are sometimes known to have driven single birds, nay, vast flocks, out to sea, which are obliged to seek for rest on board of ships at considerable distances from any land. Captain Cook very obligingly communicated to me a fact which confirms the above assertion. "Being on board of a ship between Norway and England, he met with a violent storm, during which a flight of several hundred birds covered the whole rigging of the ship. Among numbers of small birds he observed several hawks, which lived very luxuriously by preying on those poor defenceless creatures."—G.F.

To record incidents such as these, will not seem unimportant or injudicious to any one who knows the philosophical value of facts in the formation of just theories.—E.

[7] "This morning, 5th September, I let down a thermometer, suspended in the middle of a strong wooden case, of such a construction as to let the water pass freely through it in its descent, but which shut close the instant it began to be drawn up. By this means the thermometer was brought up in a body of water of the same heat with that it had been let down to. The results were as above."—W.

This opportunity may be used for introducing the following table and remarks, which are certainly deserving attention. "To ascertain the degree of warmth of the sea-water, at a certain depth, several experiments were made by us. The thermometer made use of, was of Fahrenheit's construction, made by Mr Ramsden, and furnished with an ivory scale; it was, on these occasions, always put into a cylindrical tin case, which had at each end a valve, admitting the water as long as the instrument was going down, and shutting while it was hauling up again. The annexed table will at once shew the result of the experiments.

Degrees of Fahrenheit's Stay of Time in Thermometer. the hauling Thermo- the On the Depth meter Thermo- In the Surface At a in in the meter Air. of the certain Fathoms. Deep. up. Date Latitude Sea. Depth. 1772 Sept. 5 00 deg.52'N. 75 deg. 74 deg. 66 deg. 85 F. 30' 27-1/2'

Sept.27. 24 deg.44'S. 72-1/2 70 deg. 68 deg. 80 F. 15' 7'

Oct. 12. 34 deg.48'S. 60 deg. 59 deg. 58 deg. 100 F. 2O' 6'

Dec. 15. 55 deg.00'S. 30-1/2 deg. 30 deg. 34 deg. 100 F. 17' 5-1/2'

Dec. 23. 55 deg.26'S 33 deg. 32 deg. 34-1/2 deg. 100 F. 16' 6-1/2'


Jan. 13. 61 deg.00'S. 37 deg. 33-1/2 deg. 32 deg. 100 F. 20' 7' —————————————————————————————————————

From this table it appears, that under the Line and near the tropics, the water is cooler at a great depth than at its surface. In high latitudes, the air is cooler sometimes, sometimes very near upon a par, and sometimes warmer than the sea-water at the depth of about 100 fathoms, according as the preceding changes of the temperature of the air, or the direction and violence of the wind happen to fall out. For it is to be observed, that these experiments were always made when we had a calm, or at least very little wind; because in a gale of wind, we could not have been able to make them in a boat. Another probable cause of the difference in the temperature of the sea-water in the same high latitude, undoubtedly must be sought in the ice; in a sea covered with high and extensive ice islands, the water should be colder than in a sea which is at a great distance from any ice."—F.

This table is evidently too confined, and made up of too few elements, to justify almost any general inferences. The subject is certainly a curious one, and merits full investigation, but presents very considerable difficulties, as many circumstances, which are likely to modify the result, may escape notice during the experiments. It has been said, that as water is most dense at from 37 to 39 Fahrenheit, this may be presumed to be the mean temperature at the bottom of the sea; but such hypothetical deductions are, perhaps, entitled to little confidence. It may however be safely enough presumed, that the temperature of the sea is kept tolerably uniform on the well-known principle of statics, that the heavier columns of any fluid displace those that are lighter. The waters of the ocean, perhaps, are the great agent by which the average temperature of our globe is preserved almost entirely invariable. We shall have an opportunity, in the account of another voyage, to make some remarks on this subject, and to notice more exact experiments than those just now mentioned.—E.

[8] "On this day, we had an alarm that one of our crew was overboard, upon which we immediately put about, but seeing nothing, the names of all persons on board the vessel were called over, and none found missing, to our great satisfaction. Our friends on board the Adventure, whom we visited a few days after, told us they had indeed suspected by our manoeuvre, the accident which we had apprehended, but that looking out on the sea, Captain Furneaux had plainly observed a sea-lion, that had been the cause of this false alarm."—G.F.

[9] Mr G.F. concludes his description of this well-known appearance in the following very just remark: "There was a singularity, and a grandeur in the display of this phenomenon, which could not fail of giving occupation to the mind, and striking it with a reverential awe, due to Omnipotence. The ocean covered to a great extent, with myriads of animalcules; these little beings, organized, alive, endowed with locomotive power, a quality of shining whenever they please, and illuminating every body with which they come in contact, and of laying aside their luminous appearance at pleasure; all these ideas crowded upon us, and bade us admire the Creator, even in his minutest works." However florid the language of this gentleman on the subject, his account and opinions are strongly enforced by the recent discoveries of the French naturalists related by Mr Peron, to which we shall probably call the reader's attention hereafter.—E.

[10] Mr G.F. speaks with much more enthusiasm, as one might have expected, of Dr Sparrman, extolling his talents and activity in the course of science, but lamenting, at the same time, that this voyage, on which he now set out, yielded much less matter for observation than his ardent mind had anticipated. That gentleman's labours at the Cape, it seems, however, especially in botany, were very successful; he and Dr Thunberg having, it is said, gathered above a thousand species entirely unknown before.—E.


Departure from the Cape of Good Hope, in search of a Southern Continent.

Having at length finished my business at the Cape, and taken leave of the governor and some others of the chief officers, who, with very obliging readiness, had given me all the assistance I could desire, on the 22d of November we repaired on board; and at three o'clock in the afternoon weighed, and came to sail with the wind at N. by W. As soon as the anchor was up, we saluted the port with fifteen guns, which was immediately returned; and after making a few trips, got out of the bay by seven o'clock, at which time the town bore S.E. distant four miles. After this we stood to the westward all night, in order to get clear of the land, having the wind at N.N.W. and N.W., blowing in squalls attended with rain, which obliged us to reef our topsails. The sea was again illuminated for some time, in the same manner as it was the night before we arrived in Table Bay.

Having got clear of the land, I directed my course for Cape Circumcision. The wind continued at N.W. a moderate gale, until the 24th, when it veered round to the eastward. On the noon of this day, we were in the latitude of 35 deg. 25' S., and 29' west of the Cape; and had abundance of albatrosses about us, several of which were caught with hook and line; and were very well relished by many of the people, notwithstanding they were at this time served with fresh mutton. Judging that we should soon come into cold weather, I ordered slops to be served to such as were in want; and gave to each man the fearnought jacket and trowsers allowed them by the Admiralty.

The wind continued easterly for two days, and blew a moderate gale, which brought us into the latitude of 39 deg. 4', and 2 deg. of longitude west of the Cape, thermometer 52-1/2[1] The wind now came to W. and S.W.; and on the 29th fixed at W.N.W., and increased to a storm, which continued, with some few intervals of moderate weather, till the 6th of December, when we were in the latitude of 48 deg. 41' S., and longitude 18 deg. 24' E. This gale, which was attended with rain and hail, blew at times with such violence that we could carry no sails; by which means we were driven far to the eastward of our intended course, and no hopes were left me of reaching Cape Circumcision. But the greatest misfortune that attended us, was the loss of great part of our live stock, which we had brought from the Cape, and which consisted of sheep, hogs, and geese. Indeed this sudden transition from warm, mild weather, to extreme cold and wet, made every man in the ship feel its effects. For by this time the mercury in the thermometer had fallen to 38; whereas at the Cape it was generally at 67 and upwards. I now made some addition to the people's allowance of spirit, by giving them a dram whenever I thought it necessary, and ordered Captain Furneaux to do the same. The night proved clear and serene, and the only one that was so since we left the Cape; and the next morning the rising sun gave us such flattering hopes of a fine day, that we were induced to let all the reefs out of the top-sails, and to get top-gallant yards across, in order to make the most of a fresh gale at north. Our hopes, however, soon vanished; for before eight o'clock, the serenity of the sky was changed into a thick haze, accompanied with rain. The gale increasing obliged us to hand the main-sail, close-reef our top-sails, and to strike top-gallant yards. The barometer at this time was unusually low, which foreboded an approaching storm, and this happened accordingly. For, by one o'clock p. m. the wind, which was at N.W., blew with such strength as obliged us to take in all our sails, to strike top-gallant-masts, and to get the spritsail-yard in. And I thought proper to wear, and lie-to, under a mizzen-stay-sail, with the ships' heads to the N.E. as they would bow the sea, which ran prodigiously high, better on this tack.

At eight o'clock next morning, being the 8th, we wore, and lay on the other tack; the gale was a little abated, but the sea ran too high to make sail, any more than the fore-top-mast-stay-sail. In the evening, being in the latitude of 49 deg. 40 S., and 1-1/2 deg. E. of the Cape, we saw two penguins and some sea or rock-weed, which occasioned us to sound, without finding ground at 100 fathoms. At eight p. m. we wore, and lay with our heads to the N.E. till three in the morning of the 9th, then wore again to the southward, the wind blowing in squalls attended with showers of snow. At eight, being something more moderate, I made the Adventure signal to make sail; and soon after made sail ourselves under the courses and close-reefed top-sails. In the evening, took in the top-sails and main-sail, and brought-to under fore-sail and mizzen; thermometer at 36 deg.. The wind still at N.W. blew a fresh gale, accompanied with a very high sea. In the night had a pretty smart frost with snow.[2]

In the morning of the 10th we made sail under courses and top-sails close- reefed; and made the signal for the Adventure to make sail and lead. At eight o'clock saw an island of ice to the westward of us, being then in the latitude of 56 deg. 40' S. and longitude 2 deg. 0' E. of the Cape of Good Hope. Soon after the wind moderated, and we let all the reefs out of the top- sails, got the spritsail-yard out, and top-gallant-mast up. The weather coming hazy, I called the Adventure by signal under my stern, which was no sooner done, than the haze increased so much with snow and sleet, that we did not see an island of ice, which we were steering directly for, till we were less than a mile from it. I judged it to be about 50 feet high, and half a mile in circuit. It was flat at top, and its sides rose in a perpendicular direction, against which the sea broke exceedingly high. Captain Furneaux at first took this ice for land, and hauled off from it, until called back by signal. As the weather was foggy, it was necessary to proceed with caution. We therefore reefed our top-sails, and at the same time sounded, but found no ground with 150 fathoms. We kept on to the southward with the wind at north till night, which we spent in making short trips, first one way and then another, under an easy sail; thermometer these 24 hours from 36-1/2 to 31.

At day-light in the morning of the 11th, we made sail to the southward with the wind at west, having a fresh gale, attended with sleet and snow. At noon we were in the latitude of 51 deg. 50' S., and longitude 21 deg. 3' E., where we saw some white birds about the size of pigeons, with blackish bills and feet. I never saw any such before; and Mr Forster had no knowledge of them. I believe them to be of the peterel tribe, and natives of these icy seas.[3] At this time we passed between two ice islands, which lay at a little distance from each other.

In the night the wind veered to N.W. which enabled us to steer S.W. On the 12th we had still thick hazy weather, with sleet and snow; so that we were obliged to proceed with great caution on account of the ice islands. Six of these we passed this day; some of them near two miles in circuit, and sixty feet high. And yet, such was the force and height of the waves, that the sea broke quite over them. This exhibited a view which for a few moments was pleasing to the eye; but when we reflected on the danger, the mind was filled with horror. For were a ship to get against the weather-side of one of these islands when the sea runs high, she would be dashed to pieces in a moment. Upon our getting among the ice islands, the albatrosses left us; that is, we saw but one now and then. Nor did our other companions, the pintadoes, sheerwaters, small grey birds, fulmars, &c., appear in such numbers; on the other hand, penguins began to make their appearance. Two of these birds were seen to-day.

The wind in the night veered to west, and at last fixed at S.W., a fresh gale, with sleet and snow, which froze on our sails and rigging as it fell, so that they were all hung with icicles. We kept on to the southward, passed no less than eighteen ice islands, and saw more penguins. At noon on the 13th, we were in the latitude of 54 deg. S., which is the latitude of Cape Circumcision, discovered by M. Bouvet in 1739; but we were ten degrees of longitude east of it; that is, near 118 leagues in this latitude. We stood on to the S.S.E. till eight o'clock in the evening, the weather still continuing thick and hazy, with sleet and snow. From noon till this time, twenty ice islands, of various extent, both for height and circuit, presented themselves to our view. At eight o'clock we sounded, but found no ground with 150 fathom of line.

We now tacked and made a trip to the northward till midnight, when we stood again to the southward; and at half an hour past six o'clock in the morning of the 14th, we were stopped by an immense field of low ice; to which we could see no end, either to the east, west, or south. In different parts of this field were islands or hills of ice, like those we found floating in the sea; and some on board thought they saw land also over the ice, bearing S.W. by S. I even thought so myself; but changed my opinion upon more narrowly examining these ice hills, and the various appearances they made when seen through the haze. For at this time it was both hazy and cloudy in the horizon; so that a distant object could not be seen distinct.[4] Being now in the latitude of 54 deg. 50' S. and longitude 21 deg. 34' E., and having the wind at N.W. we bore away along the edge of the ice, steering S.S.E. and S.E., according to the direction of the north side of it, where we saw many whales, penguins, some white birds, pintadoes, &c.

At eight o'clock we brought-to under a point of the ice, where we had smooth water: and I sent on board for Captain Furneaux. After we had fixed on rendezvouses in case of separation, and some other matters for the better keeping company, he returned on board, and we made sail again along the ice. Some pieces we took up along-side, which yielded fresh water. At noon we had a good observation, and found ourselves in latitude 54 deg. 55' S.

We continued a south-east course along the edge of the ice, till one o'clock, when we came to a point round which we hauled S.S.W., the sea appearing to be clear of ice in that direction. But after running four leagues upon this course, with the ice on our starboard side, we found ourselves quite imbayed; the ice extending from N.N.E. round by the west and south, to east, in one compact body. The weather was indifferently clear; and yet we could see no end to it. At five o'clock we hauled up east, wind at north, a gentle gale, in order to clear the ice. The extreme east point of it, at eight o'clock, bore E. by S., over which appeared a clear sea. We however spent the night in making short boards, under an easy sail. Thermometer, these 24 hours, from 32 to 30.

Next day, the 15th, we had the wind at N.W., a small gale, thick foggy weather, with much snow; thermometer from 32 to 27; so that our sails and rigging were all hung with icicles. The fog was so thick at times, that we could not see the length of the ship; and we had much difficulty to avoid the many islands of ice that surrounded us. About noon, having but little wind, we hoisted out a boat to try the current, which we found set S.E. near 3/4 of a mile an hour. At the same time, a thermometer, which in the open air was at 32 deg., in the surface of the sea was at 30 deg.; and, after being immerged 100 fathoms deep for about fifteen or twenty minutes, came up at 34 deg., which is only 2 deg. above freezing.[5] Our latitude at this time was 55 deg. 8'.

The thick fog continued till two o'clock in the afternoon of the next day, when it cleared away a little, and we made sail to the southward, wind still at N.W. a gentle gale. We had not run long to the southward before we fell in with the main field of ice extending from S.S.W. to E. We now bore away to east along the edge of it; but at night hauled off north, with the wind at W.N.W., a gentle gale, attended with snow.

At four in the morning on the 17th, stood again to the south; but was again obliged to bear up on account of the ice, along the side of which we steered betwixt E. and S.S.W., hauling into every bay or opening, in hopes of finding a passage to the south. But we found every where the ice closed. We had a gentle gale at N.W. with showers of snow. At noon we were, by observation, in the latitude of 55 deg. 16' S. In the evening the weather was clear and serene. In the course of this day we saw many whales, one seal, penguins, some of the white birds, another sort of peterel, which is brown and white, and not much unlike a pintado; and some other sorts already known. We found the skirts of the loose ice to be more broken than usual; and it extended some distance beyond the main field, insomuch that we sailed amongst it the most part of the day; and the high ice islands without us were innumerable. At eight o'clock we sounded, but found no ground with 250 fathoms of line. After this we hauled close upon a wind to the northward, as we could see the field of ice extend as far as N.E. But this happened not to be the northern point; for at eleven o'clock we were obliged to tack to avoid it.

At two o'clock the next morning we stood again to the northward, with the wind at N.W. by W., thinking to weather the ice upon this tack; on which we stood but two hours, before we found ourselves quite imbayed, being then in latitude 55 deg. 8', longitude 24 deg. 3'. The wind veering more to the north, we tacked and stood to the westward under all the sail we could carry, having a fresh breeze and clear weather, which last was of short duration. For at six o'clock it became hazy, and soon after there was thick fog; the wind veered to the N.E., freshened and brought with it snow and sleet, which froze on the rigging as it fell. We were now enabled to get clear of the field of ice: but at the same time we were carried in amongst the ice islands, in a manner equally dangerous, and which with much difficulty we kept clear of.

Dangerous as it is to sail among these floating rocks (if I may be allowed to call them so) in a thick fog, this, however, is preferable to being entangled with immense fields of ice under the same circumstances. The great danger to be apprehended in this latter case, is the getting fast in the ice; a situation which would be exceedingly alarming. I had two men on board that had been in the Greenland trade; the one of them in a ship that lay nine weeks, and the other in one that lay six weeks, fast in this kind of ice, which they called packed ice. What they called field ice is thicker; and the whole field, be it ever so large, consists of one piece. Whereas this which I call field-ice, from its immense extent, consists of many pieces of various sizes, both in thickness and surface, from thirty or forty feet square to three or four, packed close together, and in places heaped one upon another. This, I am of opinion, would be found too hard for a ship's side, that is not properly armed against it. How long it may have lain, or will lie here, is a point not easily determined. Such ice is found in the Greenland seas all the summer long; and I think it cannot be colder there in the summer, than it is here. Be this as it may, we certainly had no thaw; on the contrary, the mercury in Fahrenheit's thermometer kept generally below the freezing point, although it was the middle of summer.

It is a general opinion, that the ice I have been speaking of, is formed in bays and rivers. Under this supposition we were led to believe that land was not far distant; and that it even lay to the southward behind the ice, which alone hindered us from approaching to it. Therefore, as we had now sailed above thirty leagues along the edge of the ice, without finding a passage to the south, I determined to run thirty or forty leagues to the east, afterwards endeavour to get to the southward, and, if I met with no land, or other impediment, to get behind the ice, and put the matter out of all manner of dispute. With this view, we kept standing to the N.W., with the wind at N.E. and N., thick foggy weather, with sleet and snow, till six in the evening, when the wind veered to N.W., and we tacked and stood to the eastward, meeting with many islands of ice of different magnitudes, and some loose pieces: The thermometer from 30 to 34; weather very hazy, with sleet and snow, and more sensibly colder than the thermometer seemed to point out, insomuch that the whole crew complained. In order to enable them to support this weather the better, I caused the sleeves of their jackets (which were so short as to expose their arms) to be lengthened with baize; and had a cap made for each man of the same stuff, together with canvas; which proved of great service to them.

Some of our people appearing to have symptoms of the scurvy, the surgeons began to give them fresh wort every day, made from the malt we had on board for that purpose. One man in particular was highly scorbutic; and yet he had been taking the rob of lemon and orange for some time, without being benefited thereby. On the other hand, Captain Furneaux told me, that he had two men, who, though far gone in this disease, were now in a manner entirely cured by it.[6]

We continued standing to the eastward till eight o'clock in the morning of the 21st; when, being in the latitude of 53 deg. 50', and longitude 29 deg. 24' E., we hauled to the south, with the wind at west, a fresh gale and hazy, with snow. In the evening the wind fell and the weather cleared up, so as that we could see a few leagues round us; being in the latitude of 54 deg. 43' S. longitude 29 deg. 30' E.

At ten o'clock, seeing many islands of ice a-head, and the weather coming on foggy, with snow, we wore and stood to the northward, till three in the morning, when we stood again to the south. At eight, the weather cleared up, and the wind came to W.S.W., with which we made all the sail we could to the south; having never less than ten or twelve islands of ice in sight.

Next day we had the wind at S.W. and S.S.W., a gentle gale, with now and then showers of snow and hail. In the morning, being in the latitude of 55 deg. 20' S., and longitude 31 deg. 30' E., we hoisted out a boat to see if there was any current, but found none. Mr Forster, who went in the boat, shot some of the small grey birds before-mentioned, which were of the peterel tribe, and about the size of a small pigeon. Their back, and upper side of their wings, their feet and bills, are of a blue-grey colour. Their bellies, and under side of their wings are white, a little tinged with blue. The upper side of their quill feathers is a dark-blue tinged with black. A streak is formed by feathers nearly of this colour, along the upper parts of the wings, and crossing the back a little above the tail. The end of the tail feathers is also of the same colour. Their bills are much broader than any I have seen of the same tribe; and their tongues are remarkably broad. These blue peterels, as I shall call them, are seen no where but in the southern hemisphere, from about the latitude of 28 deg., and upwards. Thermometer at 33 deg. in the open air, and 32 deg. in the sea at the surface, and at 34-1/2 when drawn, and 6-1/2 minutes in drawing up from 100 fathoms below it, where it had been sixteen minutes.

On the 24th, the wind blew from N.W. to N.E., a gentle gale, fair and cloudy. At noon we were by observation, in the latitude of 56 deg. 31' S, and longitude 31 deg. 19' E., the thermometer at 35. And being near an island of ice, which was about fifty feet high, and 400 fathoms in circuit, I sent the master in the jolly-boat to see if any water run from it. He soon returned with an account that there was not one drop, or any other appearance of thaw. In the evening we sailed through several floats, or fields of loose ice, lying in the direction of S.E. and N.W.; at the same time we had continually several islands of the same composition in sight.

On the 25th, the wind veering round from the N.E., by the east to south, it blew a gentle gale; with which we stood to the W.S.W, and at noon were in the latitude of 57 deg. 50' S., and longitude 29 deg. 32' E. The weather was fair and cloudy; the air sharp and cold, attended with a hard frost. And, although this was the middle of summer with us, I much question if the day was colder in any part of England. The wind continued at south, blew a fresh gale, fair and cloudy weather, till near noon the next day, when we had clear sun-shine, and found ourselves, by observation, in the latitude of 58 deg. 31' S., longitude 26 deg. 57' E.

In the course of the last twenty-four hours we passed through several fields of broken loose ice. They were in general narrow, but of a considerable length, in the direction of N.W. and S.E. The ice was so close in one, that it would hardly admit the ship through it. The pieces were flat, from four to six or eight inches thick, and appeared of that sort of ice which is generally formed in bays or rivers. Others again were different; the pieces forming various honey-combed branches, exactly like coral rocks, and exhibiting such a variety of figures as can hardly be conceived.

We supposed this ice to have broke from the main field we had lately left; and which I was determined to get to the south of, or behind, if possible, in order to satisfy myself whether or not it joined to any land, as had been conjectured. With this view I kept on to the westward, with a gentle gale at south, and S.S.W., and soon after six o'clock in the evening, we saw some penguins, which occasioned us to sound; but we found no ground with 150 fathoms.

In the morning of the 27th, we saw more loose ice, but not many islands; and those we did see were but small. The day being calm and pleasant, and the sea smooth, we hoisted out a boat, from which Mr Forster shot a penguin and some peterels. These penguins differ not from those seen in other parts of the world, except in some minute particulars distinguishable only by naturalists. Some of the peterels were of the blue sort, but differed from those before-mentioned, in not having a broad bill; and the ends of their tail feathers were tipped with white instead of dark-blue. But whether these were only the distinctions betwixt the male and female, was a matter disputed by our naturalists. We were now in the latitude of 58 deg. 19' S., longitude 24 deg. 39' E., and took the opportunity of the calm, to sound; but found no ground with a line of 220 fathoms. The calm continued till six in the evening, when it was succeeded by a light breeze from the east, which afterwards increased to a fresh gale.

In the morning of the 28th I made the signal to the Adventure to spread four miles on my starboard beam; and in this position we continued sailing W.S.W., until four o'clock in the afternoon, when the hazy weather, attended with snow showers, made it necessary for us to join. Soon after we reefed our top-sails, being surrounded on all sides with islands of ice. In the morning of the 29th we let them out again, and set top-gallant-sails; still continuing our course to the westward, and meeting with several penguins. At noon we were by observation in the latitude of 59 deg. 12', longitude 19 deg. 1' E., which is 3 deg. more to the west than we were when we first fell in with the field of ice; so that it is pretty clear that it joined to no land, as we conjectured.

Having come to a resolution to run as far west as the meridian of Cape Circumcision, provided we met with no impediment, as the distance was not more than eighty leagues, the wind favourable, and the sea seemed to be pretty clear of ice, I sent on board for Captain Furneaux, to make him acquainted therewith, and after dinner he returned to his ship. At one o'clock we steered for an island of ice, thinking if there were any loose ice round it, to take some on board, and convert it into fresh water. At four we brought-to, close under the lee of the island, where we did not find what we wanted, but saw upon it eighty-six penguins. This piece of ice was about half a mile in circuit, and one hundred feet high and upwards, for we lay for some minutes with every sail becalmed under it. The side on which the penguins were, rose sloping from the sea, so as to admit them to creep up it.

It is a received opinion, that penguins never go far from land, and that the sight of them is a sure indication of its vicinity. The opinion may hold good where there are no ice islands; but where such are, these birds, as well as many others which usually keep near the shores, finding a roosting-place upon these islands, may be brought by them a great distance from any land. It will, however, be said, that they must go on shore to breed, that probably the females were there, and that these are only the males which we saw. Be this as it may, I shall continue to take notice of these birds whenever we see them, and leave every one to judge for himself.

We continued our course to the westward, with a gentle gale at E.N.E., the weather being sometimes tolerably clear, and at other times thick and hazy, with snow. The thermometer for a few days past was from 31 to 36. At nine o'clock the next morning, being the 30th, we shot one of the white birds, upon which we lowered a boat into the water to take it up, and by that means killed a penguin which weighed eleven pounds and a half. The white bird was of the peterel tribe; the bill, which is rather short, is of a colour between black and dark blue, and their legs and feet are blue. I believe them to be the same sort of birds that Bouvet mentions to have seen when he was off Cape Circumcision.

We continued our westerly course till eight o'clock in the evening, when we steered N.W., the point on which I reckoned the above-mentioned cape to bear. At midnight we fell in with loose ice, which soon after obliged us to tack, and stretch to the southward. At half an hour past two o'clock in the morning of the 31st, we stood for it again, thinking to take some on board, but this was found impracticable; for the wind, which had been at N.E, now veered to S.E., and increasing to a fresh gale, brought with it such a sea as made it very dangerous for the ships to remain among the ice. The danger was yet farther increased by discovering an immense field to the north, extending from N.E. by E. to S.W. by W. farther than the eye could reach. As we were not above two or three miles from this, and surrounded by loose ice, there was no time to deliberate. We presently wore; got our tacks on board; hauled to the south, and soon got clear; but not before we had received several hard knocks from the loose pieces, which were of the largest sort, and among which we saw a seal. In the afternoon the wind increased in such a manner, as to oblige us to hand the top-sails, and strike top-gallant-yards. At eight o'clock we tacked and stood to the east till midnight; when being in the latitude of 60 deg. 21' S., longitude 13 deg. 32' E, we stood again to the west.

Next day, towards noon, the gale abated, so that we could carry close- reefed top-sails. But the weather continued thick and hazy, with sleet and snow, which froze on the rigging as it fell, and ornamented the whole with icicles; the mercury in the thermometer being generally below the freezing point. This weather continued till near noon the next day; at which time we were in the latitude of 59 deg. 12' S.; longitude 9 deg. 45' E.; and here we saw some penguins.

The wind had now veered to the west, and was so moderate, that we could bear two reefs out of the top-sails. In the afternoon, we were favoured with a sight of the moon, whose face we had seen but once since we left the Cape of Good Hope. By this a judgment may be formed of the sort of weather we had since we left that place. We did not fail to seize the opportunity to make several observations of the sun and moon. The longitude deduced from it was 9 deg. 34' 30" E. Mr Kendal's watch, at the same time, giving 10 deg. 6' E., and the latitude was 58 deg. 53' 30" S.

This longitude is nearly the same that is assigned to Cape Circumcision; and at the going down of the sun we were about ninety-five leagues to the south of the latitude it is said to lie in. At this time the weather was so clear, that we might have seen land at fourteen or fifteen leagues distance. It is, therefore very probable, that what Bouvet took for land, was nothing but mountains of ice, surrounded by loose or field-ice. We ourselves were undoubtedly deceived by the ice-hills, the day we first fell in with the field-ice. Nor was it an improbable conjecture, that that ice joined to land. The probability was however now greatly lessened, if not entirely set aside; for the space between the northern edge of the ice, along which we sailed, and our route to the west, when south of it, no where exceeded 100 leagues, and in some places not 60. The clear weather continued no longer than three o'clock the next morning, when it was succeeded by a thick fog, sleet, and snow. The wind also veered to N.E. and blew a fresh gale, with which we stood to S.E. It increased in such a manner, that before noon we were brought under close-reefed top-sails. The wind continued to veer to the north, at last fixed at N.W., and was attended with intervals of clear weather.

Our course was E. 1/4 N., till noon the next day, when we were in the latitude of 59 deg. 2' S., and nearly under the same meridian as we were when we fell in with the last field of ice, five days before; so that had it remained in the same situation, we must now have been in the middle of it, whereas we did not so much as see any. We cannot suppose that so large a float of ice as this was, could be destroyed in so short a time. It therefore must have drifted to the northward: and this makes it probable that there is no land under this meridian, between the latitude of 55 deg. and 59 deg., where we had supposed some to lie, as mentioned above.

As we were now only sailing over a part of the sea where we had been before, I directed the course E.S.E. in order to get more to the south. We had the advantage of a fresh gale, and the disadvantage of a thick fog; much snow and sleet, which, as usual, froze on our rigging as it fell; so that every rope was covered with the finest transparent ice I ever saw. This afforded an agreeable sight enough to the eye, but conveyed to the mind an idea of coldness, much greater than it really was; for the weather was rather milder then it had been for some time past, and the sea less encumbered with ice. But the worst was, the ice so clogged the rigging, sails, and blocks, as to make them exceedingly bad to handle. Our people, however, surmounted those difficulties with a steady perseverance, and withstood this intense cold much better than I expected.

We continued to steer to the E.S.E. with a fresh gale at N.W. attended with snow and sleet, till the 8th, when we were in the latitude of 61 deg. 12' S., longitude 31 deg. 47' E. In the afternoon we passed more ice islands than we had seen for several days. Indeed they were now so familiar to us, that they were often passed unnoticed; but more generally unseen on account of the thick weather. At nine o'clock in the evening, we came to one, which had a quantity of loose ice about it. As the wind was moderate, and the weather tolerably fair, we shortened sail, and stood on and off, with a view of taking some on board on the return of light. But at four o'clock in the morning, finding ourselves to leeward of this ice, we bore down to an island to leeward of us; there being about it some loose ice, part of which we saw break off. There we brought-to; hoisted out three boats; and in about five or six hours, took up as much ice as yielded fifteen tons of good fresh water. The pieces we took up were hard, and solid as a rock; some of them were so large, that we were obliged to break them with pick- axes before they could be taken into the boats.

The salt water which adhered to the ice, was so trifling as not to be tasted, and, after it had lain on deck for a short time, entirely drained off; and the water which the ice yielded, was perfectly sweet and well- tasted. Part of the ice we broke in pieces, and put into casks; some we melted in the coppers, and filled up the casks with the water; and some we kept on deck for present use. The melting and stowing away the ice is a little tedious, and takes up some time; otherwise this is the most expeditious way of watering I ever met with.[7]

Having got on board this supply of water, and the Adventure about two- thirds as much (of which we stood in great need,) as we had once broke the ice, I did not doubt of getting more whenever we were in want. I therefore without hesitation directed our course more to the south, with a gentle gale at N.W., attended, as usual, with snow showers. In the morning of the 11th, being then in the latitude of 62 deg. 44' S., longitude 37 deg. E., the variation of the compass was 24 deg. 10' W., and the following morning in the latitude of 64 deg. 12' S., longitude 38 deg. 14' E., by the mean of three compasses, it was no more than 23 deg. 52' W. In this situation we saw some penguins; and being near an island of ice from which several pieces had broken, we hoisted out two boats, and took on board as much as filled all our empty casks, and the Adventure did the same. While this was doing, Mr Forster shot an albatross, whose plumage was of a colour between brown and dark-grey, the head and upper side of the wings rather inclining to black, and it had white eye-brows. We began to see these birds about the time of our first falling in with the ice islands; and some have accompanied us ever since. These, and the dark-brown sort with a yellow bill, were the only albatrosses that had not now forsaken us.

At four o'clock p.m. we hoisted in the boats, and made sail to the S.E., with a gentle breeze at S. by W., attended with showers of snow.

On the 13th, at two o'clock a. m. it fell calm. Of this we took the opportunity to hoist out a boat, to try the current, which we found to set N.W. near one-third of a mile an hour. At the time of trying the current, a Fahrenheit's thermometer was immerged in the sea 100 fathoms below its surface, where it remained twenty minutes. When it came up, the mercury stood at 32, which is the freezing point. Some little time after, being exposed to the surface of the sea, it rose to 33-1/2, and in the open air to 36. The calm continued till five o'clock in the evening, when it was succeeded by a light breeze from the S. and S.E., with which we stood to the N.E. with all our sails set.

Though the weather continued fair, the sky, as usual, was clouded. However, at nine o'clock the next morning, it was clear; and we were enabled to observe several distances between the sun and moon. The mean result of which gave 39 deg. 30' 30" E. longitude. Mr Kendal's watch at the same time gave 38 deg. 27' 45" which is 1 deg. 2' 45" W. of the observations; whereas, on the 3d instant, it was half a degree E. of them.

In the evening I found the variation by the mean of azimuths taken with Gregory's compass to be 28 deg. 14' 0"

By the mean of six azimuths by one of Dr Knight's 28 32 0

And by another of Dr Knight's 28 34 0

Our latitude at this time was 63 deg. 57', longitude 39 deg. 38-1/2"

The succeeding morning, the 15th, being then in latitude 63 deg. 33' S., the longitude was observed by the following persons, viz.

Myself, being the mean of six distances of the sun and moon 40 deg. 1' 45" E.

Mr Wales, ditto 39 29 45

Ditto, ditto 39 56 45

Lieutenant Clerke, ditto 39 38 0

Mr Gilbert, ditto 39 48 45

Mr Smith, ditto 39 18 15 ————— Mean 39 42 12

Mr Kendal's watch made 38 41 30

which is nearly the same difference as the day before. But Mr Wales and I took each of us six distances of the sun and moon, with the telescopes fixed to our sextants, which brought out the longitude nearly the same as the watch.

The results were as follows:—By Mr Wales, 38 deg. 35' 30", and by me, 38 deg. 36' 45".

It is impossible for me to say whether these or the former are the nearest to the truth; nor can I assign any probable reason for so great a disagreement. We certainly can observe with greater accuracy through the telescope, than with the common sight, when the ship is sufficiently steady. The use of the telescope is found difficult at first, but a little practice will make it familiar. By the assistance of the watch, we shall be able to discover the greatest error this method of observing the longitude at sea is liable to; which at the greatest does not exceed a degree and a half, and in general will be found to be much less. Such is the improvement navigation has received by the astronomers and mathematical instrument- makers of this age; by the former from the valuable tables they have communicated to the public, under the direction of the Board of Longitude, and contained in the astronomical ephemeris; and by the latter, from the great accuracy they observe in making instruments, without which the tables would, in a great measure, lose their effect. The preceding observations were made by four different sextants, of different workmen. Mine was by Mr Bird; one of Mr Wales's by Mr Dollond; the other and Mr Clerke's by Mr Ramsden; as also Mr Gilbert's and Smith's, who observed with the same instrument.

Five tolerably fine days had now succeeded one another. This, besides giving us an opportunity to make the preceding observations, was very serviceable to us on many other accounts, and came at a very seasonable time. For, having on board a good quantity of fresh water, or ice, which was the same thing, the people were enabled to wash and dry their clothes and linen; a care that can never be enough attended to in all long voyages. The winds during this time blew in gentle gales, and the weather was mild. Yet the mercury in the thermometer never rose above 36; and was frequently as low as the freezing point.

In the afternoon having but little wind, I brought-to under an island of ice, and sent a boat to take up some. In the evening the wind freshened at east, and was attended with snow showers and thick hazy weather, which continued great part of the 16th. As we met with little ice, I stood to the south, close hauled; and at six o'clock in the evening, being in the latitude of 64 deg. 56' S., longitude 39 deg. 35' E. I found the variation by Gregory's compass to be 26 deg. 41' W. At this time the motion of the ship was so great that I could by no means observe with any of Dr Knight's compasses.

As the wind remained invariably fixed at E. and E. by S., I continued to stand to the south; and on the 17th, between eleven and twelve o'clock, we crossed the Antarctic Circle in the longitude of 39 deg. 35' E., for at noon we were by observation in the latitude of 66 deg. 36' 30" S. The weather was now become tolerably clear, so that we could see several leagues round us; and yet we had only seen one island of ice since the morning. But about four p.m. as we were steering to the south, we observed the whole sea in a manner covered with ice, from the direction of S.E., round by the S. to W.

In this space, thirty-eight ice islands, great and small, were seen, besides loose ice in abundance, so that we were obliged to luff for one piece, and bear up for another, and as we continued to advance to the south, it increased in such a manner, that at three quarters past six o'clock, being then in the latitude of 67 deg. 15' S., we could proceed no farther; the ice being entirely closed to the south, in the whole extent from E. to W.S.W., without the least appearance of any opening. This immense field was composed of different kinds of ice; such as high hills, loose or broken pieces packed close together, and what, I think, Greenlandmen call field-ice. A float of this kind of ice lay to the S.E. of us, of such extent, that I could see no end to it from the mast-head. It was sixteen or eighteen feet high at least; and appeared of a pretty equal height and surface. Here we saw many whales playing about the ice, and for two days before had seen several flocks of the brown and white pintadoes, which we named Antarctic peterels, because they seem to be natives of that region. They are, undoubtedly, of the peterel tribe; are in every respect shaped like the pintadoes, differing only from them in colour. The head and fore-part of the body of these are brown; and the hind-part of the body, tail, and the ends of the wings, are white. The white peterel also appeared in greater numbers than before; some few dark-grey albatrosses, and our constant companion the blue peterel. But the common pintadoes had quite disappeared, as well as many other sorts, which are common in lower latitudes.

[1] "In the midst of this heavy gale, I tried Dr Lind's wind-gage, and the water in it was depressed by the force of the wind 45/100 of an inch." W. According to the same authority, it was equally depressed on the 30th, and on the 1st December, it sunk 4/10 of an inch in the squalls. Mr G.F. relates an interesting enough alarm that occurred during this stormy weather. "A petty officer in the forepart of the vessel, awaking suddenly, heard a noise of water streaming through his birth, and breaking itself against his own and his mess-mates' chests; he leaped out of his bed, and found himself to the middle of his leg in water. He instantly acquainted the officer of the quarter-deck with the dreadful circumstances, and in a few moments almost every person was in motion; the pumps were employed, and the officers encouraged the seamen with an alarming gentleness, to persevere in their work; notwithstanding which the water seemed to gain upon us; every soul was filled with terror, increased by the darkness of the night. The chain- pumps were now cleared, and our sailors laboured at them with great alacrity; at last one of them luckily discovered that the water came in through a scuttle (or window) in the boatswain's store-room, which not having been secured against the tempestuous southern ocean, had been staved in by the force of the waves. It was immediately repaired," &c. Incidents of this kind are not often related by a commander, but they are useful to a reader by diversifying the records of bearings, courses, &c. &c.—E.

[2] "At half past ten in the evening, some water which had been spilled on the deck was frozen, and in the morning we passed the first island of ice. It was not very high, was smooth on the top and sides, and not rugged like those I have seen in the north seas." W.—Mr Forster in his observations has entered into a very important discussion respecting the formation of the ice islands, but it is vastly too long for insertion in this place. Few readers, however, it is likely, will object to see it elsewhere.—E.

[3] "They constantly appeared about the icy masses, and may be looked upon as sure forerunners of ice. Their colour induced us to call them the snowy peterels."—G.F.

[4] "We had already had several false alarms from the fallacious conformation of fog-banks, or that of islands of ice half hid in snow storms, and our consort the Adventure had repeatedly made the signals for seeing land, deceived by such appearances: but now, the imagination warmed with the idea of M. Bouvet's discovery, one of our lieutenants, after having repeatedly been up to the mast-head, (about six o'clock in the morning on the 14th,) acquainted the captain that he plainly saw the land. This news brought us all upon deck: We saw an immense field of flat ice before us, broken into many small pieces on the edges, a vast number of islands of ice of all shapes and sizes rose beyond it as far as the eye could reach, and some of the most distant considerably raised by the hazy vapours which lay on the horizon, had indeed some appearance of mountains. Several of our officers persisted in the opinion that they had seen land here, till Captain Cook, about two years and two months afterwards, (in February 1775,) on his course from Cape Horn towards the Cape of Good Hope, sailed over the same spot, where they had supposed it to lie, and found neither land nor even ice there at that time."—G.F.

[5] "While we were doing this, so thick a fog came on, that it was with the utmost difficulty, and after some considerable time, that we found the ships again."—W.

"Their situation in a small four-oared boat, on an immense ocean, far from any habitable shore, surrounded with ice, and utterly destitute of provisions, was truly terrifying and horrible in its consequences. They rowed about for some time, making vain efforts to be heard, but all was silent about them, and they could not see the length of their boat. They were the more unfortunate, as they had neither mast nor sail, and only two oars. In this dreadful suspence they determined to lie still, hoping that, provided they preserved their place, the sloops would not drive out of sight, as it was calm. At last they heard the jingling of a bell at a distance; this sound was heavenly music to their ears; they immediately rowed towards it, and by continual hailing, were at last answered from the Adventure, and hurried on board, overjoyed to have escaped the danger of perishing by slow degrees, through the inclemencies of weather and through famine. Having been on board some time, they fired a gun, and being within hail of the Resolution, returned on board of that sloop to their own damp beds and mouldering cabins, upon which they now set a double value: after so perilous an expedition."—G.F.

[6] "The encomiums on the efficacy of malt cannot be exaggerated, and this useful remedy ought never to be forgotten on board of ships bound on long voyages; nor can we bestow too much care to prevent its becoming damp and mouldy, by which means its salutary qualities are impaired, as we experienced during the latter part of our voyage."— G.F.

[7] "That water melted from the ice usually found floating in the sea is fresh and good, is no new discovery. The Hudson's Bay ships have long made use of it; and I have mentioned it, from my own experience, in the account of a voyage to Hudson's Bay." See Phil. Trans. vol. 60.—W. This is a solitary but most unexceptionable evidence. Mr Forster, in the article before alluded to, has not failed to point out much more.—E.


Sequel of the Search for a Southern Continent, between the Meridian of the Cape of Good Hope and New Zealand; with an Account of the Separation of the two Ships, and the Arrival of the Resolution in Dusky Bay.

After meeting with this ice, I did not think it was at all prudent to persevere in getting farther to the south; especially as the summer was already half spent, and it would have taken up some time to have got round the ice, even supposing it to have been practicable; which, however, is doubtful. I therefore came to a resolution to proceed directly in search of the land lately discovered by the French. And, as the winds still continued at E. by S., I was obliged to return to the north, over some part of the sea I had already made myself acquainted with, and, for that reason, wished to have avoided. But this was not to be done, as our course made good, was little better than north. In the night the wind increased to a strong gale, attended with sleet and snow, and obliged us to double-reef our top-sails. About noon the next day the gale abated, so that we could bear all our reefs out; but the wind still remained in its old quarter.

In the evening, being in the latitude of 64 deg. 12' S., longitude 40 deg. 15' E., a bird, called by us in my former voyage Port Egmont Hen, (on account of the great plenty of them at Port Egmont in Falkland Isles,) came hovering several times over the ship, and then left us in the direction of N.E. They are a short thick bird, about the size of a large crow, of a dark-brown or chocolate colour, with a whitish streak under each wing, in the shape of a half-moon. I have been told that these birds are found in great plenty at the Fero Isles, North of Scotland; and that they never go far from land. Certain it is, I never before saw them above forty leagues off; but I do not remember ever seeing fewer than two together; whereas here was but one, which, with the islands of ice, may have come a good way from land.

At nine o'clock, the wind veering to E.N.E., we tacked and stood to the S.S.E, but at four in the morning of the 20th, it returned back to its old point, and we resumed our northerly course. One of the above birds was seen this morning, probably the same we saw the night before, as our situation was not much altered. As the day advanced, the gale increased, attended with thick hazy weather, sleet, and snow, and at last obliged us to close- reef our top-sails, and strike top-gallant-yards. But in the evening the wind abated so as to admit us to carry whole top-sails, and top-gallant- yards aloft. Hazy weather, with snow and sleet continued.

In the afternoon of the 21st, being in the latitude of 62 deg. 24' S., longitude 42 deg. 19' E., we saw a white albatross with black tipped wings, and a pintado bird. The wind was now at S. and S.W., a fresh gale. With this we steered N.E., against a very high sea, which did not indicate the vicinity of land in that quarter; and yet it was there we were to expect it. The next day we had intervals of fair weather, the wind was moderate, and we carried our studding-sails.[1] In the morning of the 23d, we were in latitude of 60 deg. 27' S., longitude 45 deg. 33' E. Snow showers continued, and the weather was so cold, that the water in our water-vessels on deck had been frozen for several preceding nights.

Having clear weather at intervals, I spread the ships a-breast four miles from each other, in order the better to discover any thing that might lie in our way. We continued to sail in this manner till six o'clock in the evening, when hazy weather and snow showers made it necessary for us to join.

We kept our course to N.E. till eight o'clock in the morning of the 25th, when the wind having veered round to N.E. by E., by the W. and N. we tacked, and stood to N.W. The wind was fresh, and yet we made but little way against a high northerly sea. We now began to see some of that sort of peterels so well known to sailors by the name of sheerwaters, latitude 58 deg. 10', longitude 50 deg. 54' E. In the afternoon the wind veered to the southward of east; and at eight o'clock in the evening, it increased to a storm, attended with thick hazy weather, sleet and snow.

During night we went under our fore-sail and main-top-sail close-reefed: At day-light the next morning, added to them the fore and mizen top-sails. At four o'clock it fell calm; but a prodigious high sea from the N.E., and a complication of the worst of weather, viz. snow, sleet, and rain, continued, together with the calm, till nine o'clock in the evening. Then the weather cleared up, and we got a breeze at S.E. by S. With this we steered N. by E. till eight o'clock the next morning, being the 27th, when I spread the ships, and steered N.N.E., all sails set, having a fresh breeze at S. by W., and clear weather.

At noon we were by observation, in the latitude of 56 deg. 28' S., and, about three o'clock in the afternoon, the sun and moon appearing at intervals, their distances were observed by the following persons; and the longitude resulting therefrom was,

By Mr Wales, (the mean of two sets) 50 deg. 59' East. Lieutenant Clerke 51 11 Mr Gilbert 50 14 Mr Smith 50 50 Mr Kendal's watch 50 50

At six o'clock in the evening, being in latitude 56 deg. 9' S., I now made signal to the Adventure to come under my stern; and at eight o'clock the next morning sent her to look out on my starboard beam, having at this time a fresh gale at west and pretty clear weather. But this was not of long duration; for, at two in the afternoon, the sky became cloudy and hazy, the wind increased to a fresh gale, blew in squalls attended with snow, sleet, and drizzling rain. I now made signal to the Adventure to come under my stern, and took another reef in each top-sail. At eight o'clock I hauled up the main-sail, and run all night under the foresail, and two top-sails; our course being N.N.E. and N.E. by N., with a strong gale at N.W.

The 29th, at noon, we observed in latitude 52 deg. 29' S., the weather being fair and tolerably clear. But in the afternoon, it again became very thick and hazy with rain; and the gale increased in such a manner as to oblige us to strike top-gallant yards, close-reef and hand the top-sails. We spent part of the night, which was very dark and stormy, in making a tack to the S.W., and in the morning of the 30th, stood again to the N.E., wind at N.W. and N., a very fresh gale; which split several of our small sails. This day no ice was seen, probably owing to the thick hazy weather. At eight o'clock in the evening we tacked and stood to the westward, under our courses; but as the sea run high, we made our course no better than S.S W.

At four o'clock the next morning, the gale had a little abated; and the wind had backed to W. by S. We again stood to the northward, under courses and double-reefed top-sails, having a very high sea from the N.N.W., which gave us but little hopes of finding the land we were in search of. At noon we were in the latitude of 50 deg. 56' S., longitude 56 deg. 48' E., and presently after we saw two islands of ice. One of these we passed very near, and found that it was breaking or falling to pieces, by the cracking noise it made; which was equal to the report of a four-pounder. There was a good deal of loose ice about it; and had the weather been favourable, I should have brought-to, and taken some up. After passing this, we saw no more, till we returned again to the south.

Hazy gloomy weather continued, and the wind remained invariably fixed at N.W., so that we could make our course no better than N.E. by N., and this course we held till four o'clock in the afternoon of the first of February. Being then in the latitude of 48 deg. 30', and longitude 58 deg. 7' E., nearly in the meridian of the island of Mauritius, and where we were to expect to find the land said to be discovered by the French, of which at this time we saw not the least signs, we bore away east.

I now made the signal to the Adventure to keep at the distance of four miles on my starboard beam. At half an hour past six, Captain Furneaux made the signal to speak with me; and upon his coming under my stern, he informed me that he had just seen a large float of sea or rock weed, and about it several birds (divers.) These were certainly signs of the vicinity of land; but whether it lay to the east or west, was not possible for us to know. My intention was to have got into this latitude four or five degrees of longitude to the west of the meridian we were in, and then to have carried on my researches to the east. But the west and north-west winds we had had the five preceding days, prevented me from putting this in execution.

The continual high sea we had lately had from the N.E., N., N.W. and W., left me no reason to believe that land of any extent lay to the West. We therefore continued to steer to the east, only lying-to a few hours in the night, and in the morning resumed our course again, four miles north and south from each other; the hazy weather not permitting us to spread farther. We passed two or three small pieces of rock weed, and saw two or three birds known by the name of egg-birds; but saw no other signs of land. At noon we observed in latitude 48 deg. 36' S., longitude 59 deg. 35' E. As we could only see a few miles farther to the south, and as it was not impossible that there might be land not far off in that direction, I gave orders to steer S. 1/2 E., and made the signal for the Adventure to follow, she being by this movement thrown a-stern: The weather continuing hazy till half an hour past six o'clock in the evening, when it cleared up so as to enable us to see about five leagues round us.

Being now in the latitude of 49 deg. 13' S., without having the least signs of land, I wore and stood again to the eastward, and soon after spoke with Captain Furneaux. He told me that he thought the land was to the N.W. of us,; as he had, at one time, observed the sea to be smooth when the wind blew in that direction. Athough this was not conformable to the remarks we had made on the sea, I resolved to clear up the point, if the wind would admit of my getting to the west in any reasonable time.

At eight o'clock in the morning of the 3d, being in the latitude of 48 deg. 56' S. longitude 60 deg. 47' E., and upwards of 8 deg. to the east of the meridian of the Mauritius, I began to despair of finding land to the east; and as the wind had now veered to the north, resolved to search for it to the west. I accordingly tacked and stood to the west with a fresh gale. This increased in such a manner, that, before night, we were reduced to our two courses; and, at last, obliged to lie-to under the fore-sails, having a prodigious high sea from W.N.W., notwithstanding the height of the gale was from N. by W. At three o'clock the next morning, the gale abating, we made sail, and continued to ply to the west till ten o'clock in the morning of the 6th.

At this time, being in the latitude of 48 deg. 6' S., longitude 58 deg. 22' E., the wind seemingly fixed at W.N.W., and seeing no signs of meeting with land, I gave over plying, and bore away east a little southerly: Being satisfied, that if there is any land hereabout, it can only be an isle of no great extent. And it was just as probable I might have found it to the E. as to the W.

While we were plying about here we took every opportunity to observe the variation of the compass, and found it to be from 27 deg. 50' to 30 deg. 26' W. Probably the mean of the two extremes, viz. 29 deg. 4', is the nearest the truth, as it nearly agrees with the variation observed on board the Adventure. In making these observations, we found that, when the sun was on the larboard side of the ship, the variation was the least; and when on the starboard side, the greatest. This was not the first time we had made this observation, without being able to account for it. At four o'clock in the morning of the 7th, I made the Adventure's signal to keep at the distance of four miles on my starboard beam; and continued to steer E.S.E. This being a fine day, I had all our men's bedding and clothes spread on deck to air; and the ship cleaned and smoked betwixt decks. At noon I steered a point more to the south, being then in the latitude of 45 deg. 49' S., longitude 61 deg. 48' E. At six o'clock in the evening, I called in the Adventure; and at the same time took several azimuths, which gave the variation 31 deg. 28'.W. These observations could not be taken with the greatest accuracy, on account of the rolling of the ship, occasioned by a very high westerly swell.

The preceding evening, three Port Egmont hens were seen; this morning another appeared. In the evening, and several times in the night, penguins were heard; and, at daylight in the morning of the 8th, several of these were seen; and divers of two sorts, seemingly such as are usually met with on the coast of England. This occasioned us to sound, but we found no ground with a line of 210 fathoms. Our latitude now was 49 deg. 53' S., and longitude 63 deg. 39' E. This was at eight o'clock. By this time the wind had veered round by the N.E. to E., blew a brisk gale, and was attended with hazy weather, which soon after turned to a thick fog; and, at the same tine, the wind shifted to N.E.

I continued to keep the wind on the larboard tack, and to fire a gun every hour till noon; when I made the signal to tack, and tacked accordingly. But, as neither this signal, nor any of the former, was answered by the Adventure, we had but too much reason to think that a separation had taken place; though we were at a loss to tell how it had been effected. I had directed Captain Furneaux, in case he was separated from me, to cruise three days in the place where he last saw me. I therefore continued making short boards, and firing half-hour guns, till the 9th in the afternoon, when, the weather having cleared up, we could see several leagues round us, and found that the Adventure was not within the limits of our horizon. At this time we were about two or three leagues to the eastward of the situation we were in when we last saw her; and were standing to the westward with a very strong gale at N.N.W., accompanied with a great sea from the same direction. This, together, with an increase of wind, obliged us to lie-to till eight o'clock the next morning, during which time we saw nothing of the Adventure, notwithstanding the weather was pretty clear, and we had kept firing guns, and burning false fires, all night. I therefore gave over looking for her, made sail, and steered S.E., with a very fresh gale at W. by N., accompanied with a high sea from the same direction.

While we were beating about here; we frequently saw penguins and divers, which made us conjecture the land was not far off; but in what direction it was not possible for us to tell. As we advanced to the south, we lost the penguins, and most of the divers; and, as usual, met with abundance of albatrosses, blue peterels, sheer-waters, &c.

The 11th, at noon, and in the latitude of 51 deg. 15' S., longitude 67 deg. 20' E., we again met with penguins: and saw an egg bird, which we also look upon to be a sign of the vicinity of land. I continued to steer to the S.E., with a fresh gale in the north-west quarter, attended with a long hollow swell, and frequent showers of rain, hail, and snow. The 12th, in the morning, being in the latitude of 52 deg. 32' S., longitude 69 deg. 47' E., the variation was 31 deg. 38' W. In the evening, in the latitude of 53 deg. 7' S., longitude 70 deg. 50' E., it was 32 deg. 33'; and, the next morning, in the latitude of 53 deg. 37' S., longitude 72 deg. 10', it was 33 deg. 8' W. Thus far we had continually a great number of penguins about the ship, which seemed to be different from those we had seen near the ice; being smaller, with reddish bills and brownish heads. The meeting with so many of these birds, gave us some hopes of finding land, and occasioned various conjectures about its situation. The great westerly swell, which still continued, made it improbable that land of any considerable extent lay to the west. Nor was it very probable that any lay to the north; as we were only about 160 leagues to the south of Tasman's track in 1642; and I conjectured that Captain Furneaux would explore this place; which accordingly happened. In the evening we saw a Port Egmont hen, which flew away in the direction of N.E. by E., and the next morning a seal was seen; but no penguins. In the evening, being in the latitude of 55 deg. 49' S., longitude 75 deg. 52' E., the variation was 34 deg. 48' W., and, in the evening of the 15th, in latitude 57 deg. 2' S., longitude 79 deg. 56' E., it was 38 deg. W. Five seals were seen this day, and a few penguins; which occasioned us to sound, without finding any bottom, with a line of 150 fathoms.

At day-light in the morning of the 16th, we saw an island of ice to the northward; for which we steered, in order to take some on board; but the wind shifting to that direction, hindered us from putting this in execution. At this time we were in the latitude of 57 deg. 8' S., longitude 80 deg. 59' E., and had two islands of ice in sight. This morning we saw one penguin, which appeared to be of the same sort which we had formerly seen near the ice. But we had now been so often deceived by these birds, that we could no longer look upon them, nor indeed upon any other oceanic birds, which frequent high latitudes, as sure signs of the vicinity of land.

The wind continued not long at north, but veered to E. by N.E., and blew a gentle gale, with which we stood to the southward; having frequent showers of sleet and snow. But, in the night, we had fair weather, and a clear serene sky; and, between midnight and three o'clock in the morning, lights were seen in the heavens, similar to those in the northern hemisphere, known by the name of Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights; but I never heard of the Aurora Australia been seen before. The officer of the watch observed that it sometimes broke out in spiral rays, and in a circular form; then its light was very strong, and its appearance beautiful. He could not perceive it had any particular direction; for it appeared, at various times, in different parts of the heavens, and diffused its light throughout the whole atmosphere.[2]

At nine in the morning, we bore down to an island of ice which we reached by noon. It was full half a mile in circuit, and two hundred feet high at least, though very little loose ice about it. But while we were considering whether or no we should hoist out our boats to take some up, a great quantity broke from the island. Upon this we hoisted out our boats, and went to work to get some on board. The pieces of ice, both great and small, which broke from the island, I observed, drifted fast to the westward; that is, they left the island in that direction, and were, in a few hours, spread over a large space of sea. This, I have no doubt, was caused by a current setting in that direction. For the wind could have but little effect upon the ice; especially as there was a large hollow swell from the west. This circumstance greatly retarded our taking up ice. We, however, made a shift to get on board about nine or ten tons before eight o'clock, when we hoisted in the boats and made sail to the east, inclining to the south, with a fresh gale at south; which, soon after, veered to S.S.W. and S.W., with fair but cloudy weather. This course brought us among many ice isles; so that it was necessary to proceed with great caution. In the night the mercury in the thermometer fell two degrees below the freezing point; and the water in the scuttle casks on deck was frozen. As I have not taken notice of the thermometer of late, I shall now observe, that, as we advanced to the north, the mercury gradually rose to 45, and fell again, as we advanced to the south, to what is above-mentioned; nor did it rise, in the middle of the day, to above 34 or 35.

In the morning of the 18th, being in the latitude of 57 deg. 54' S., longitude 83 deg. 14' E., the variation was 39 deg. 33' W. In the evening, in latitude 58 deg. 2' S., longitude 84 deg. 35' E., it was only 37 deg. 8' W., which induced me to believe it was decreasing. But in the evening of the 20th, in the latitude of 58 deg. 47' S., longitude 90 deg. 56' E., I took nine azimuths, with Dr Knight's compass, which gave the variation 40 deg. 7', and nine others, with Gregory's, which gave 40 deg. 15' W.

This day, at noon, being nearly in the latitude and longitude just mentioned, we thought we saw land to the S.W. The appearance was so strong that we doubted not it was there in reality, and tacked to work up to it accordingly; having a light breeze at south, and clear weather. We were, however, soon undeceived, by finding that it was only clouds; which, in the evening, entirely disappeared, and left us a clear horizon, so that we could see a considerable way round us; in which space nothing was to be seen but ice islands.

In the night the Aurora Australis made a very brilliant and luminous appearance. It was seen first in the east, a little above the horizon; and, in a short time, spread over the whole heavens.

The 21st, in the morning, having little wind and a smooth sea, two favourable circumstances for taking up ice, I steered for the largest ice island before us, which we reached by noon. At this time, we were in the latitude of 59 deg. S., longitude 92 deg. 30' E.; having about two hours before seen three or four penguins. Finding here a good quantity of loose ice, I ordered two boats out, and sent them to take some on board. While this was doing, the island, which was not less than half a mile in circuit, and three or four hundred feet high above the surface of the sea, turned nearly bottom up. Its height, by this circumstance, was neither increased nor diminished apparently. As soon as we had got on board as much ice as we could dispose of, we hoisted in the boats, and made sail to the S.E., with a gentle breeze at N. by E., attended with showers of snow, and dark gloomy weather. At this time we had but few ice islands in sight, but, the next day, seldom less than twenty or thirty were seen at once.

The wind gradually veered to the east; and, at last, fixing at E. by S., blew a fresh gale. With this we stood to the south, till eight o'clock in the evening of the 23d; at which time we were in the latitude of 61 deg. 52' S., longitude 95 deg. 2' E. We now tacked and spent the night, which was exceedingly stormy, thick, and hazy, with sleet and snow, in making short boards. Surrounded on every side with danger, it was natural for us to wish for day-light. This, when it came, served only to increase our apprehensions, by exhibiting to our view those huge mountains of ice, which in the night we had passed without seeing.

These unfavourable circumstances, together with dark nights, at this advanced season of the year, quite discouraged me from putting in execution a resolution I had taken of crossing the Antarctic Circle once more. Accordingly, at four o'clock in the morning, we stood to the north, with a very hard gale at E.S.E., accompanied with snow and sleet, and a very high sea from the same point, which made great destruction among the ice islands. This circumstance, far from being of any advantage to us, greatly increased the number of pieces we had to avoid. The large pieces which break from the ice islands, are much more dangerous than the islands themselves. The latter are so high out of water, that we can generally see them, unless the weather be very thick and dark, before we are very near them. Whereas the others cannot be seen in the night, till they are under the ship's bows. These dangers were, however, now become so familiar to us, that the apprehensions they caused were never of long duration; and were, in some measure, compensated both by the seasonable supplies of fresh water these ice islands afforded us, (without which we must have been greatly distressed,) and also by their very romantic appearance, greatly heightened by the foaming and dashing of the waves into the curious holes and caverns which are formed in many of them; the whole exhibiting a view which at once filled the mind with admiration and horror, and can only be described by the hand of an able painter.[3]

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