A Dictionary of Austral English
by Edward Morris
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1880. Fison and Howitt, 'Kamilaroi and Kurnai,' p. 196:

"Down to the waist they are all wound round with frayed stringy-bark in thick folds."

1894. 'The Age,' Oct. 19, p. 5, col. 8:

"Granite and stringy-bark are always associated with 'hungry' country."

(2) Bush slang for bad whisky.

1890. A. J. Vogan, 'The Black Police,' p. 217:

"Stringy-bark, a curious combination of fusil oil and turpentine, labelled 'whisky.'"

Stringy-bark, adj. equivalent to "bush."

1833. Oct. 'New South Wales Magazine,' vol. 1. p. 173:

". . . the workmanship of which I beg you will not scrutinize, as I am but, to use a colonial expression, 'a stringy-bark carpenter.'"

1853. C. Rudston Read, 'What I Heard, Saw, and Did at the Australian Gold Fields,' p. 53:

". . . after swimming a small river about 100 yards wide he'd arrive at old Geordy's, a stringy bark settler . . ."

Sturt's Desert Pea, n. a beautiful creeper, Clianthus dampieri, Cunn., N.O. Leguminosae, which will only grow in very dry, sandy soil. It is sometimes called Lobster's Claw, from its clusters of brilliant scarlet flowers with black-purple centres, like a lobster's claw. Called also Glory Pea (q.v.). See Clianthus.

1865. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'History of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. p. 29:

"Amongst which appears the beautiful Clianthus, known to the colonists as Sturt's desert pea."

[Footnote]: "Woodward in 'Dampier's Voyages,' vol. iii. cap. 4, pl. 2. The plant is there called Colutea Novae-Hollandiae. Its name now is Clianthus Dampieri. R. Brown proposed the name of Eremocharis, from the Greek 'eraemos, desert."

[Dampier's voyage was made in 1699, and the book published in 1703. Mr. Woodward contributed notes on the plants brought home by Dampier.]

Stump-jump Plough, n. a farm implement, invented in Australia, for ploughing the wheat-lands, which are often left with the stumps of the cleared trees not eradicated.

1896. 'Waybrook Implement Company' (Advt.):

"It is only a very few years since it came into use, and no one ever thought it was going to turn a trackless scrub into a huge garden. But now from the South Australian border right through to the Murray, farms and comfortable homesteads have taken the place of dense scrub. This last harvest, over three hundred thousand bags of wheat were delivered at Warracknabeal, and this wonderful result must, in the main, be put down to the Stump-jump Plough. It has been one of the best inventions this colony has ever been blessed with."

Stump-tailed Lizard, n. an Australian lizard, Trachydosaurus rugosus, Gray.

Styphelia, n. scientific name of a genus of shrubby plants of New Zealand and Australia, of the N.O. Epacrideae. It contains the Five-Corners (q.v.).

1793. J. E. Smith, 'Specimen of the Botany of New Holland,' p. 46:

"We adopt Dr. Solander's original name Styphelia, derived from stuphelos, harsh, hard, or firm, expressive of the habit of the whole genus and indeed of the whole natural order."

Sucker, n. name given in New Zealand to the fish Diplocrepis puniceus, Rich., family Gobiesocidae. This is a family of small, marine, littoral fishes provided with a ventral disc, or adhesive apparatus. Other genera of the family occur in Australasia.

Sugar, n. slang for money. It may be doubted if it is specially Australian.

1887. J. Bonwick, 'Romance of Wool Trade,' p. 273 (quoting 'Victoria, the El Dorado'):

"I hear him sing out 'sold again, and got the sugar' (a colonial slang word for ready money); 'half a sheep for a shilling.'"

Sugar-Ant, n. a small ant, known in many parts of Australia by this name because of its fondness for sweet things.

1896. 'The Melbournian,' Aug. 28, p. 53:

"The sun reaches a sugar-ant and rouses him from his winter sleep. Out he scurries, glad to greet the warmth, and tracks hurriedly around. He feels the sun, but the cold damp ground tells him the time is not yet come when at evening he will sally forth in long columns over the soft warm dust in search of the morrow's meal; so, dazzled by the unaccustomed glare, he seeks his hiding-place once more."

Sugar-bag, n. nest of honey, and the honey.

1881. A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 67:

"The regular sharp chop-chop of the tomahawks could be heard here and there, where some of them had discovered a sugar-bag (nest of honey) or a 'possum on a tree."

Ibid. vol. ii. p. 129:

"The tiny bee which manufactures his adored chewgah-bag."

[Footnote: "Sugar-bag—the native pigeon-English word for honey."]

Sugar-Grass, n. an Australian grass, Erianthus fulvus, Kunth., N.O. Gramineae.

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 106:

"The 'Sugar Grass' of colonists, so called on account of its sweetness; it is highly productive, and praised by stockowners. Cattle eat it close down, and therefore it is in danger of extermination, but it is readily raised from seed."

Sugar-Gum, n. an Australian Gum, Eucalyptus corynocalyx of South Australia and North-Western Victoria. The foliage is sweet, and attractive to cattle. See Gum.

Sultana-bird, n. a name for the Swamp-Hen (q.v.), Porphyrio melanonotus, Temm.

1872. A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 223:

"Black sultana-birds, blue-breasted as deep ocean."

Summer-bird, n. the Old Colonists' name for the Wood-swallows. See Swallow. In Tasmania it is applied to a species of Shrike, Graucalus melanops, Lath. The name refers to the migratory habits of both birds.

1895. C. French, Government entomologist, letter to 'Argus,' Nov. 29:

"The wood-swallows, known to us old colonists as summer birds, are migratory, making their appearance about September and disappearing about the end of January."

Summer Country, n. In New Zealand (South Island), country which can be used in summer only; mountain land in Otago and Canterbury, above a certain level.

Sun-bird, n. a common name of various birds. Applied in Australia to Cinnyris frenata, Mull.

1869. J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia' (Supplement), pl. 45:

"'This pretty Sun-bird,' says Mr. MacGillivray, 'appears to be distributed along the whole of the northeast coast of Australia, the adjacent islands, and the whole of the islands in Torres Straits.'"

Sundew, n. There are many species of this flower in Australia and Tasmania, most of them peculiar to Australasia; Drosera spp., N.O. Droseraceae.

1888. 'Cassell's Picturesque Australasia,' vol. ii. p. 236:

"Smooth, marshy meadows, gleaming with the ruby stars of millions of tiny little sundews."

Sundowner, n. a tramp who takes care to arrive at a station at sundown, so that he shall be provided with 'tucker' (q.v.) at the squatter's cost: one of those who go about the country seeking work and devoutly hoping they may not find it.

1880. G. n. Oakley, in 'Victoria in 1880,' p. 114 [Title of poem of seventeen stanzas]:

"The Sundowner."

1888. D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 32:

"When the real 'sundowner' haunts these banks for a season, he is content with a black pannikin, a clasp knife, and a platter whittled out of primaeval bark."

1890. 'The Argus,' Sept. 20, p. 13, col. 5:

"Sundowners are still the plague of squatocracy, their petition for 'rashons' and a bed amounting to a demand."

1891. F. Adams, 'John Webb's End,' p. 34:

"'Swagsmen' too, genuine, or only 'sundowners,'—men who loaf about till sunset, and then come in with the demand for the unrefusable 'rations.'"

1892. 'Scribner's Magazine,' Feb., p. 143:

"They swell the noble army of swagmen or sundowners, who are chiefly the fearful human wrecks which the ebbing tide of mining industry has left stranded in Australia."

[This writer does not differentiate between Swagman (q.v.) and Sundowner.]

1893. 'Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 12, p. 8, col. 7:

"Numbers of men who came to be known by the class name of 'sundowners,' from their habit of straggling up at fall of evening with the stereotyped appeal for work; and work being at that hour impossible, they were sent to the travellers' hut for shelter and to the storekeeper or cook for the pannikin of flour, the bit of mutton, the sufficiency of tea for a brew, which made up a ration."

1896. 'Windsor Magazine,' Dec., p. 132:

"'Here,' he remarked, 'is a capital picture of a Queensland sundowner.' The picture represented a solitary figure standing in pathetic isolation on a boundless plain. 'A sundowner?' I queried. 'Yes; the lowest class of nomad. For days they will tramp across the plains carrying, you see, their supply of water. They approach a station only at sunset, hence the name. At that hour they know they will not be turned away.' 'Do they take a day's work?' 'Not they! There is an old bush saying, that the sundowner's one request is for work, and his one prayer is that be may not find it.'"

Super, n. short for superintendent, sc. of a station.

1870. A. L. Gordon, 'Bush Ballads,' p. 23:

"What's up with our super to-night? The man's mad."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. ix. p. 83:

"That super's a growlin' ignorant beggar as runs a feller from daylight to dark for nothing at all."

1890. 'The Argus,' June 10, p. 4, col. 1:

"He . . . bragged of how he had bested the super who tried to 'wing him' in the scrub."

Superb-Dragon, n. an Australian marine fish, Phyllopteryx foliatus, Shaw. See Sea-Dragon.

1880. Mrs. Meredith, 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' pl. 7:

"'Superb-Dragon—Phyllopteryx Foliatus.' This is one of the 'Pipe fishes,' order Lophobranchii. It has been compared to the ghost of a seahorse (Hippocampus) with its winding sheet all in ribbons around it; and the tattered cerements are like in shape and colour to the seaweed it frequents, so that it hides and feeds in safety. The long ends of ribs which seem to poke through the skin to excite our compassion are really 'protective resemblances,' and serve to allure the prey more effectually within reach of these awful ghouls. Just as the leaf-insect is imitative of a leaf, and the staff insect of a twig, so here is a fish like a bunch of seaweed. (Tenison-Woods.)" [Compare Phasmid.]

Superb-Warbler, n. any Australian bird of the genus Malurus (q.v.), especially M. cyaneus, the Blue Wren.

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 80:

"We also observed the Superb Warbler, Malurus cyaneus, of Sydney."

1848. J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iii. pl. 18:

"Malurus Cyaneus, Vieill., Blue Wren; Superb Warbler of the Colonists."

1896. F. G. Aflalo, 'Natural History of Australia,' p. 136:

"The best known are . . . and the Blue Wren or Superb Warbler (Malurus cyaneus), both of which I have repeatedly watched in the Sydney Botanic Gardens. . . . They dart about the pathways like mice, but rarely seem to fly. There are a dozen other Superb Warblers."

Supple-jack, n. The word is English in the sense of a strong cane, and is the name of various climbing shrubs from which the canes are cut; especially in America. In Australia, the name is given to similar creeping plants, viz.—Ventilago viminalis, Hook., N.O. Rhamnaceae; Clematis aristata, R. Br., N.O. Ranunculaceae. In New Zealand, to Ripogonum (spp.).

1818. 'History of New South Wales,' p. 47:

"The underwood is in general so thick and so bound together by that kind of creeping shrub called supple-jack, interwoven in all directions, as to be absolutely impenetrable."

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 218:

"After a tedious march . . . along a track constantly obstructed by webs of the kareau, or supple-jack, we came to the brow of a descent."

1857. C. Hursthouse, 'New Zealand, the Britain of the South,' vol. i. p. 135:

"Supple-jack snares, root-traps, and other parasitical impediments."

1867. F. Hochstetter, 'New Zealand,' p. 135:

"Two kinds of creepers extremely molesting and troublesome, the so-called 'supple-jack' of the colonists (Ripogonum parviflorum), in the ropelike creeping vines of which the traveller finds himself every moment entangled."

1872. A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 11:

"The tangles black Of looped and shining supple jack."

1874. W. M. B., 'Narrative of Edward Crewe,' p. 199:

The supple-jack, that stopper to all speedy progression in the New Zealand forest."

1881. J.L. Campbell, 'Poenamo,' p. 154:

"Forty or fifty feet of supple-jack. This creeper is of the thickness of your finger, and runs along the ground, and goes up the trees and springs across from one tree to the other, spanning great gaps in some mysterious manner of its own—a tough, rascally creeper that won't break, that you can't twist in two, that you must cut, that trips you by the foot or the leg, and sometimes catches you by the neck . . . so useful withal in its proper places."

1882. T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 71:

"Threading with somewhat painful care intricacies formed by loops and snares of bewildering supple-jacks, that living study of Gordian entanglement, nature-woven, for patient exercise of hand and foot."

1892. A. Sutherland, 'Elementary Geography of British Colonies,' p. 309:

"Laced together by creepers called supple-jacks, which twine and twist for hundreds of yards, with stems as thick as a man's wrist, so as to make the forests impassable except with axes and immense labour."

Surfacing, n. (1) Wash-dirt lying on the surface of the ground.

(2) verbal n. Gold-digging on the surface of the ground.

1861. T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 133:

"What is termed 'surfacing' consists of simply washing the soil on the surface of the ground, which is occasionally auriferous."

1861. Mrs. Meredith, 'Over the Straits,' c. iv. p. 133:

"I've been surfacing this good while; but quartz-reefin's the payinest game, now."

1866. T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches' [Second Series], p. 133:

"What is termed 'surfacing' consists of simply washing the soil on the surface of the ground, which is occasionally auriferous."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. xv. p. 153:

"They have been mopping up some rich surfacing."

1894. 'The Argus,' March 28, p. 5. col. 5:

"'Surfacing' or 'loaming.' Small canvas bags are carried by the prospector, and top soil from various likely-looking spots gathered and put into them, the spots being marked to correspond with the bags. The contents are then panned off separately, and if gold is found in any one of the bags the spot is again visited, and the place thoroughly overhauled, even to trenching for the reef."

Swag, n. (1) Used in the early days, and still by the criminal class, in the ordinary sense of Thieves' English, as booty, plunder.

1837. J. Mudie, 'Felonry of New South Wales,' p. 181:

"In short, having brought with her a supply of the 'swag,' as the convicts call their ill-gotten cash, a wife seldom fails of having her husband assigned to her, in which case the transported felon finds himself his own master."

1879. R. H. Barham, 'Ingoldsby Legends' (Misadventures at Margate):

"A landsman said, 'I twig the drop,—he's been upon the mill, And 'cause he gammons so the flats, ve calls him Veepin' Bill.' He said 'he'd done me very brown, and neatly stowed the swag,' -That's French, I fancy, for a hat,—or else a carpet-bag."

(2) A special Australian use: a tramp's bundle, wrapt up in a blanket, called a Bluey (q.v.). Used also for a passenger's luggage.

1827. P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 59:

"A number of the slang phrases current in St. Giles's Greek bid fair to become legitimatized in the dictionary of this colony: plant, swag, pulling up, and other epithets of the Tom and Jerry school, are established—the dross passing here as genuine, even among all ranks."

1853. S. Sidney, 'Three Colonies of Australia,' p. 361:

"His leathern overalls, his fancy stick, and his 'swag' done up in mackintosh."

1855. W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 384:

"There were others with huge swags suspended from a pole, with which they went on, like the Children of Israel carrying the gigantic bunches of the grapes of Canaan."

1865. J. O. Tucker, 'Australian Story,' c. i. p. 86:

"The cumbrous weight of blankets that comprised my swag."

1867. Lady Barker, 'Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 127:

"A pair of large double blankets to make the tent of,—that was one swag, and a very unwieldy one it was, strapped knapsack fashion, with straps of flax leaves."

1868. J. Bonwick, 'John Batman, Founder of Victoria,' p. 51:

"Three white men, the Sydney natives, and Batman, who carried his swag the same as the rest, all armed."

1871. C. L. Money, 'Knocking About in New Zealand,' p. 9:

"With my rug and blankets on my back (such a bundle being called a 'swag')."

1873. A. Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 285:

"Swag, which consists of his personal properties rolled up in a blanket."

1881. A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 33:

"His cumbrous attire and the huge swag which lay across the seat."

1888. A. Reischek, in Buller's 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 93:

"With the hope that there would now be a few fine days, I at once packed up my swag with provisions, ammunition, blanket, &c."

1892. 'The Australasian,' May 7, p. 903, col. 1:

"Kenneth, in front, reminded me comically of Alice's White Knight, what with the billies dancing and jingling on his back, and the tomahawk in his belt, and his large swag in front."

1896. H. Lawson, 'When the World was Wide,' p. 95:

"I suppose he's tramping somewhere, Where the bushmen carry swags, Cadging round the wretched stations With his empty tucker-bags."

Swag, v. to tramp the bush, carrying a swag.

1861. T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 5:

"There was the solitary pedestrian, with the whole of his supplies, consisting of a blanket and other necessary articles, strapped across his shoulders—this load is called the 'swag,' and the mode of travelling 'swagging it.'"

Swag-like, adv. in the fashion of a swag.

1890. 'The Argus,' Aug. 2, p. 4, col. 2:

"He strapped the whole lot together, swag-like."

Swagger, n. Same as Swagman (q.v.). Specially used in New Zealand. The word has also the modern English slang sense.

1875. Lady Barker, 'Station Amusements in New Zealand,' p. 154:

"Describing the real swagger, clad in flannel shirt, moleskin trowsers, and what were once thick boots."

1890. 'The Century,' vol. xli. p. 624 ('Century'):

"Under the name of swagger or sundowner the tramp, as he moves from station to station in remote districts, in supposed search for work, is a recognized element of society."

1893. 'Otago Witness,' Dec. 21, p. 6, col. 3:

"Once a footsore swagger came along, and having gone to the house to ask for 'tucker,' soon returned. He took his swag from his shoulders and leant it against the Tree; then he busied himself gathering the small sticks and dried leaves lying about on every side."

1896. 'The Argus,' March 23, p.5, col. 1:

"The minister's house is the sure mark for every stone-broke swagger in search of clothes or victuals."

1896. 'Southern Standard' (New Zealand), [page not given]:

"An ardent young lady cyclist of Gore, who goes very long journeys on her machine, was asked by a lady friend if she was not afraid of swaggers on the road. 'Afraid of them?' she said, 'why, I take tea with them!'"

1896. 'The Champion,' Jan. 4, p. 3, col. 3:

"He [Professor Morris] says that 'swagger' is a variant of 'swagman.' This is equally amusing and wrong."

[Nevertheless, he now says it once again.]

Swaggie, n. a humorous variation on swagman.

1892. E. W. Horning, 'Under Two Skies,' p. 109:

"Here's a swaggie stopped to camp, with flour for a damper, and a handful of tea for the quart-pot, as safe as the bank."

Swagman, n. a man travelling through the bush carrying a Swag (q.v.), and seeking employment. There are variants, Swagger (more general in New Zealand), Swaggie, and Swagsman. The Sundowner, Traveller, or New Zealand Tussocker, is not generally a seeker for work.

1890. 'The Argus,' June 7, p. 4, col. 2:

"The regular swagman carrying his ration bags, which will sometimes contain nearly twenty days' provender in flour and sugar and tea."

1891. Rolf Boldrewood, 'A Sydney-side Saxon,' p. 156:

"We pulled up a swagman. He was walking very slow; he was a bit lame too. His swag wasn't heavy, for he had only a rag of a blue blanket, a billy of water in his hand, and very little else."

1893. 'The Herald' (Melbourne), Jan. 25:

"Under the electric light in the quadrangle of the Exhibition they will give tableaux, representing the murder of a swagman by a native and the shooting of the criminal by a black tracker."

1897. 'The Argus,' Jan. 11, p. 7, col. 2:

"The Yarra has claimed many swagman in the end, but not all have died in full travelling costume . . . a typical back-blocks traveller. He was grey and grizzled, but well fed, and he wore a Cardigan jacket, brown moleskin trousers, blucher boots, and socks, all of which were mended with rough patches. His knife and tobacco, his odds and ends, and his purse, containing 14 1/2d., were still intact, while across his shoulder was a swag, and the fingers of his right hand had tightly closed round the handle of his old black billy-can, in which were some scraps of meat wrapped in a newspaper of the 5th inst. He had taken with him his old companions of the roads—his billy and his swag."

Swagsman, n. a variant of Swagman (q.v.).

1879 J. Brunton Stephens, 'Drought and Doctrine' (Works, p. 309):

"Rememberin' the needful, I gets up an' quietly slips To the porch to see—a swagsman—with our bottle at his lips."

1880. G. Sutherland, 'Tales of Goldfields,' p. 89:

"One of these prospecting swagsmen was journeying towards Maryborough."

1882. A. J. Boyd, 'Old Colonials,' p. 111:

"Idleness being the mainspring of the journeys of the Swagsman (Anglice, 'tramp')."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xix. p. 235:

"The able-bodied swagsmen hasten towards Rainbar."

Swallow, n. common English bird-name. The species observed in Australia are—

The Swallow— Hirundo neoxena, Gould.

Black-and-white S.— Cheramaeca leucosternum, Gould.

Black-faced Wood S.— Artamus melanops, Gould.

Eastern S.— Hirundo javanica, Sparrm.

Grey-breasted Wood S.— Artamus cinereus, Vieill.

Little Wood S.— A. minor, Vieill.

Masked Wood S.— Artamus personatus, Gould.

White-bellied Wood S.— A. hypoleucus.

White-browed Wood S.— A. superciliosus, Gould.

White-rumped Wood S.— A. leucogaster, Valenc.

Wood S.— A. sordidus, Lath.

Artamus is often wrongly spelt Artemus. The Wood-Swallows are often called Summer-birds (q.v.).

Swamp-Broom, n. a rush-broom, Viminaria denudata, Sm., N.O. Leguminosae. See Swamp-Oak.

Swamp-Daisy-tree, n. See Daisy-tree.

Swamp-Gum, n. See Gum.

Swamp-Hawk, n. another name for the New Zealand Harrier. See Harrier.

Swamp-Hen, n. an Australasian bird, Porphyrio melanonotus, Temm. (often incorrectly shortened to Melanotus). Called sometimes the Porphyrio (q.v.); Maori name, Pukeko. Called also the Swamp-Turkey, the Purple Coot, and by New Zealand colonists, Sultana-bird, Pukaki, or Bokaka, the last two being corruptions of the Maori name. For a West-Australian variety of the Porphyrio, see quotation (1848).

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' c. i. p. 228:

"The pukeko is of a dark-blue colour, and about as large as a pheasant. The legs, the bill, and a horny continuation of it over the front of the head, are of a bright crimson colour. Its long legs adapt it for its swampy life; its flight is slow and heavy, resembling that of a bittern."

1848. J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. vi. pl. 70:

"Porphyrio Bellus, Gould, Azure breasted Porphyrio; Swamp-Hen, Colonists of Western Australia."

1888. W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 79:

[A full description.]

Swamp-Mahogany, n. a timber tree, Eucalyptus botryoides, Sm. See Gum and Mahogany.

1886. T. Heney, 'Fortunate Days,' p. 50:

"Swamp mahogany's floor-flowered arms."

Swamp-Oak, n. (1) A broomlike leguminous shrub or small tree, Viminaria denudata, Sm. (also called Swamp-broom). (2) A tree of the genus Casuarina, especially C. paludosa. See Oak.

1833. C. Sturt, I Southern Australia,'vol. i. c. i. p. 53:

"Light brushes of swamp-oak, cypress, box and acacia pendula."

1847. J. D. Lang, 'Phillipsland,' p. 257:

"Its banks (Murrumbidgee) are fringed with the beautiful swamp-oak, a tree of the Casuarina family, with a form and character somewhat intermediate between that of the spruce and that of the Scotch fir, being less formal and Dutch-like than the former, and more graceful than the latter."

1865. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'History of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. p. 324:

"A stream, whose winding channel could be traced by the particularly dark verdure of the swamp-oak (Casuarina paludosa) on its banks."

1866. Miss Parkes, 'Poems,' p. 40:

"Your voice came to me, soft and distant seeming, As comes the murmur of the swamp-oak's tone."

1870. F. S. Wilson, 'Australian Songs,' p. 100:

"Softly the swamp-oak Muttered its sorrows to her and to me."

1883. C. Harpur, 'Poems,' p. 47:

"Befringed with upward tapering feathery swamp-oaks."

Swamp-Pheasant, n. called also Pheasant-cuckoo. Another name for the Coucal (q.v.).

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 60:

"A Centropus phasianellus (the swamp-pheasant of Moreton Bay) was shot."

1881. A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 116:

"Far down the creek, on one of the river-oaks which grow in its bed, a swamp-pheasant utters its rapid coocoo-coo-coo-coo- coo-cook."

1887. R. M. Praed, 'Longleat of Kooralbyn,' c. xvi. p. 102:

"The gurgling note of the swamp-pheasant."

1890. C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 94:

"The bird Centropus, which is common in all Queensland, is found here in great numbers. Although it really is a cuckoo, the colonists call it the 'swamp-pheasant,' because it has a tail like a pheasant. It is a very remarkable bird with stiff feathers, and flies with difficulty on account of its small wings. The swamp-pheasant has not the family weakness of the cuckoo, for it does not lay its eggs in the nests of other birds. It has a peculiar clucking voice which reminds one of the sound produced when water is poured from a bottle."

Swamp-Sparrow, n. a nickname in New Zealand for the Fern-bird (q.v.).

1888. W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 60:

"These beds of rushes which form blind water-courses during the winter season, are dry in summer and are then a favourite resort for the Swamp-Sparrow as this bird is sometimes called."

Ibid. vol. ii. p. 255:

"The melancholy cry of the Fern-bird is so general and persistent that its nick-name of Swamp Sparrow is not undeserved."

Swan, Black, n. an Australian bird—Cycnus niger, Juvenal; Cygnus atratus, Gould; Chenopsis atrata, Wagl., sometimes miscalled Chenopis.

The river upon which Perth, Western Australia, is situated, is called the Swan River, and the colony was long known as the Swan River Settlement. It has expanded into Western Australia, the emblem of which colony is still the Black Swan. Since 1855 the Black Swan has been the device on the postage stamps of Western Australia.

82 A.D. (circiter). 'Juvenal, Sat.' vi. 164: "Rara avis in terris nigroque simillima cycno."

1700 (circiter). J. Locke, in 'Johnson's Dictionary' (9th edition, 1805), s.v. Swan:

"The idea which an Englishman signifies by the name Swan, is a white colour, long neck, black beak, black legs, and whole feet, and all these of a certain size, with a power of swimming in the water, and making a certain kind of noise."

1789. Governor Phillip, 'Voyage,' p. 98:

"A black swan, which species, though proverbially rare in other parts of the world, is here by no means uncommon . . . a very noble bird, larger than the common swan, and equally beautiful in form . . . its wings were edged with white: the bill was tinged with red."

1790. J. White, 'Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 137:

"We found nine birds, that, whilst swimming, most perfectly resembled the rara avis of the ancients, a black swan."

1802. G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' p. 146:

"Large ponds covered with ducks and black swans."

1847. J. D. Lang, 'Phillipsland,' p. 115:

"These extensive sheets of glassy water . . . were absolutely alive with black swans and other water fowl . . . There must have been at least five hundred swans in view at one time on one of the lakes. They were no 'rara avis' there."

1848. J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. vii. pl. 6:

"Cygnus Atratus, Black Swan. The first notice on record respecting the existence of the Black Swan occurs in a letter written by Mr. Witsen to Dr. M. Lister about the year 1698, in which he says, 'Here is returned a ship, which by our East India Company was sent to the south land called Hollandea Nova'; and adds that Black Swans, Parrots and many Sea-Cows were found there."

1856. J. S. Mill, 'Logic' [4th edition], vol. i. bk. iii. c. iii. p. 344:

"Mankind were wrong, it seems, in concluding that all swans were white. . . . As there were black swans, though civilized people had existed for three thousand years on the earth without meeting with them."

1875. 'Spectator' (Melbourne), May 29, p. 45, col. 3:

"The presence of immense flocks of black swans is also regarded as an indication of approaching cold weather."

1882. T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 22:

"The musical whoop of the black swan is sometimes heard as the wedge-shaped flock passes over."

1895. G. Metcalfe, 'Australian Zoology,' p. 64:

"Strzelecki states that the black swan was discovered in 1697 by Vlaming. . . . In 1726 two were brought alive to Batavia, having been procured on the West Coast of Australia, near Dirk Hartog's Bay. Captain Cook observed it on several parts of the coast."

Swan-River Daisy, n. a pretty annual plant, Brachycome iberidifolia, Benth., N.O. Compositae, of Western Australia. The heads are about an inch broad, and have bright blue rays, with paler centre. It is cultivated in flower gardens, and is well suited for massing. ('Century.')

Sweep, n. a marine fish of the Australian coasts, called by this name in Sydney. It is Scorpis aequipinnis, Richards., family Squamipinnes. This family has the soft, and frequently also the spinous, part of their dorsal and anal fins so thickly covered with scales, that the boundary between fins and body is entirely obliterated. S. aequippinnis is possibly the Light-horseman (q.v.) of early Australian writers.

Sweet Tea. See Tea.

Swift, n. In Australia, the species of this common bird are—Spine-tailed Swift, Chaetura caudacuta, Lath.; White-rumped S., Micropus pacificus, Lath.

Swing-gate, n. Used in its ordinary English sense, but specially applied to a patent gate for drafting sheep, invented by Mr. Lockhart Morton.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' c. ix. p. 91:

"Mr. Stangrove . . . has no more idea of a swing-gate than a shearing-machine."

Sword-grass, n. In New Zealand, Arundo conspicua; in Australia, Cladium psittacorum, Labill. It is not the same as the English plant of that name, and is often called Cutting Grass (q.v.).

1872. A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 172:

"The great plumes far and wide of the sword-grass aspire."

Sword-Sedge, a sedge on Australian coasts, Lepidosperma gladiatum, Labill., N.O. Cyperaceae, useful for binding sea-sand, and yielding a good material for paper.

1877. Baron von Mueller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 124:

"Lepidosperma is nearly endemically Australian. Lepidosperma gladiatum, the great Swords-edge [sic] of our coasts, furnishes an admirable material for writing paper."

[It is curious that Swords-edge makes most ingenious sense, but it is evidently a misprint for Sword-sedge.]

Sycamore Tree. See Laurel. In New South Wales, the name is given to Brachyciton luridus, C. Moore, N.O. Sterculiaceae.

Sycoceric, adj. belonging to a waxy resin obtained from the Port-Jackson Fig; see under Fig. (From Grk. sukon, "fig," and kaeros, "wax.")

Sycoceryl, n. a supposed element of the sycoceric compounds. See Sycoceric.


Taboo, n. See Tapu.

Tagrag-and-Bobtail, n. a species of sea-weed. See quotation.

1866. S. Hannaford, 'Wild Flowers of Tasmania,' p. 80:

"It is a wiry-stemmed plant, with small mop-like tufts, which hold water like a sponge. This is Bellotia Eriophorum, the specific name derived from its resemblance to the cotton-grass. Harvey mentions its colonial name as 'Tagrag and Bobtail,' and if it will enable collectors the more easily to recognise it, let it be retained."

Taiaha, n. a Maori word for a chief's walking-staff, a sign of office, sometimes used in fighting, like a quarterstaff.

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 139:

"The men are placed at equal intervals along either side to paddle, and they keep excellent stroke to the song of two leaders, who stand up and recite short alternate sentences, giving the time with the taiaha, or long wooden spear. The taiaha is rather a long-handled club than a spear. It is generally made of manuka, a very hard, dark, close-grained and heavy wood. The taiaha is about six feet long, etc."

1851. Mrs. Wilson, 'New Zealand,' p. 46:

"The taiaha is rather a long-handled club than a spear."

1855. Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 299:

"A taiaha, or chiefs staff."

1881. J. L. Campbell, 'Poenamo,' p. 80:

"In his right hand he brandished a taiaha, a six-foot Maori broadsword of hard wood, with its pendulous plume of feathers hanging from the hilt."

1889. Major Wilson and Edward Tregear, 'On the Korotangi,' 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' vol. xxii. art. lxii. p. 505:

"Many famous tribal heirlooms are hidden and lost to posterity. The Rev. Mr. Buller mentions a famous taiaha, of great mana, as having been buried and lost in this way, lest it should fall into the power of opposing tribes, and cause disaster to the original owner."

Taihoa, Maori phrase, meaning "Wait a bit." Much used in some circles in New Zealand. The 'Standard' gives it wrongly as "Anglo-Tasmanian," probably because Mr. Wade's book was published in Hobart.

1842. W. R. Wade, 'Journey in New Zealand' (Hobart Town), p.66:

"'Taihoa.' This word has been translated, By and by; but in truth, it has all the latitude of directly,—presently, —by and by,—a long time hence,—and nobody knows when . . . the deliberate reply is, 'Taihoa'. . . this patience-trying word. . . ."

1881. J. L. Campbell, 'Poenamo,' p. 87:

"That irritatingly provoking word, 'taihoa.'"

[p. 88]: "The drawled-out t-a-i-h-o-a fell upon the ear."

[p. 266] [Title of chapter]: "I learn what Taihoa means."

[p.271]: "Great is the power of taihoa."

[p. 276]: "The imperturbable taihoa, given to us with the ordinary placid good-humour."

Tail, v. tr. to herd and tend sheep or cattle: lit. to follow close behind the tail.

1844. 'Port Phillip Patriot,' Aug. 5, p. 3, col. 6:

"I know many boys, from the age of nine to sixteen years, tailing cattle."

1855. G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes,' p. 153:

"The stockman, as he who tends cattle and horses is called, despises the shepherd as a grovelling, inferior creature, and considers 'tailing sheep' as an employment too tardigrade for a man of action and spirit."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xix. p. 239:

"'The cattle,' no longer 'tailed,' or followed daily, as a shepherd does sheep."

Tailing, adj. consisting of tailings (q.v.).

1890. 'Goldfields of Victoria,' p. 21:

"From recent assays of the tailing-sand, scarcely one quarter of the pyrites has been extracted."

Tailings, n. "The detritus carried off by water from a crushing machine, or any gold-washing apparatus." (Brough Smyth, 'Glossary of Mining Terms.') Not limited to Australia.

1891. 'The Argus,' June 16, p. 6, col. 2:

"A hundred and fifty tons of tailings are treated at the Sandhurst pyrites works every month."

Tailor, n. name given in New South Wales to the fish Temnodon saltator, Cuv. and Val. It is called Skipjack (q.v.) in Melbourne, a name by which it is also known in America and Britain. Those of large size are called "Sea-tailors." It belongs to the family Carangidae, or Horse-Mackerels (q.v.).

Taipo, n. a New Zealand word for devil, often applied by settlers to a vicious horse or as a name for a dog. There is a dangerous river, the Taipo, on the west coast. There is considerable dispute as to whether the word is true Maori or not. The Rev. T. G. Hammond of Patea says—

"No such Maori word as taipo, meaning devil, exists. It would mean evening-tide—tai-po. Probably the early sailors introduced attached meaning of devil from the Maori saying, 'Are you not afraid to travel at night?' referring to the danger of tidal rivers."

On the other hand, Mr. Tregear says, in his 'Maori Comparative Dictionary,' s.v.—

"Taepo, a goblin, a spectre. Cf. tae, to arrive; po, night."

The Rev. W. Colenso says, in his pamphlet on 'Nomenclature' (1883), p. 5:

"Taepo means to visit or come by night,—a night visitant,—a spectral thing seen in dreams,—a fancied and feared thing, or hobgoblin, of the night or darkness; and this the settlers have construed to mean the Devil!—and of course their own orthodox one."

Taipo or taepo is also a slang term for a surveyor's theodolite among the Maoris, because it is the "land-stealing devil."

1848. Rev. R. Taylor, 'Leaf from the Natural History of New Zealand,' p. 43:

"Taipo, female dreamer; a prophetess; an evil spirit."

1855. Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 49:

"There is the Taringa-here, a being with a face like a cat; and likewise another, called a Taipo, who comes in the night, sits on the tops of houses, and converses with the inmates, but if a woman presumes to open her mouth, it immediately disappears."

1878. B. Wells, 'History of Taranaki,' p. 3:

"The similarity in sound and meaning of the Egyptian word typhon with that of the Maori taipo, both being the name of the Spirit of Evil, is also not a little remarkable."

[Ingenious, but worthless.]

1886. T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' 'New Zealand Country journal,' vol. x. p. 262:

"His wife became seriously affected, declaring that Taipo had entered into her. Reasoning was wholly useless. She declared that Taipo was in the smoke of the wood, which smoke she had inhaled; soon she became prostrated by illness and was expected to die."

1887. J. C. Crawford, 'Travels in New Zealand and Australia,' p. 107:

"After dinner Watkins requested the loan of a tomahawk to defend himself on going up to the Pa on the hill above. He said he knew that there was a taipo (devil) about; he felt it in his head."

1888. P. W. Barlow, 'Kaipara,' p. 48:

"They were making the noises I heard to drive away the 'Taipo,' a sort of devil who devotes his attention exclusively to Maoris, over whom, however, he only possesses power at night."

1891. W. H. Roberts, 'Southland in 1856,' p. 72:

"They believed it was the principal rendez-vous of the fallen angel (Taipo) himself."

1896. Modern. Private Letter (May):

"Taipo, for instance, of course one knows its meaning, though it has been adopted chiefly as a name as common as 'Dash' or 'Nero' for New Zealand dogs; all the same the writers upon Maori superstitions seem to have no knowledge of it. Polach, Dieffenbach, Nicholas, Yates, call their evil spirits whiros or atuas. Tepo, the place of darkness, is the nearest they have come to it. I think myself it is South Island Maori, often differing a little in spelling and use; and so very much the larger proportion of New Zealand literature is the literature of the North."

Tait, n. a Western Australian animal, properly called the Long-snouted Phalanger, Tarsipes rostratus, the only species of its genus. See Phalanger and Opossum. It is about the size of a mouse, and lives almost entirely on honey, which it extracts from flowers.

1894. R. Lydekker, 'Marsupialia,' p. 120:

"The Long-snouted Phalanger, which derives its scientific name from a certain resemblance of its hind feet to those of a Malayan Lemur-like animal known as the Tarsier, is one of the most interesting of the phalangers. . . . Known to the natives by the names of Tait and Nulbenger, it is, writes Gould, 'generally found in all situations suited to its existence, from Swan River to King George's Sound.'"

Takahe, n. Maori name for an extinct New Zealand Rail, Notornis mantelli, Owen. See Notornis.

1889. Prof. Parker, 'Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,' p. 116:

"The Takahe is the rarest of existing native birds, if indeed it is not already extinct."

Takapu, n. Maori name for the bird Dysporus serrator, Banks, a Gannet (q.v.).

Take (a man) down, Australian sporting slang. (1) To induce a man to bet, knowing that he must lose. (2) To advise a man to bet, and then to "arrange" with an accomplice (a jockey, e.g.) for the bet to be lost. (3) To prove superior to a man in a game of skill.

1895. 'The Argus,' Dec. 5, p. 5, col. 2:

"It appeared that [the plaintiff] had a particular fancy for a [certain] horse, and in an evil hour induced [the defendant] to lay him a wager about this animal at the long odds of two shillings to threepence. When the horse had romped triumphantly home and [the plaintiff] went to collect his two shillings [the defendant] accused him of having 'taken him down,' stigmatised him as a thief and a robber, and further remarked that [the plaintiff] had the telegram announcing the result of the race in his pocket when the wager was made, and in short refused to give [the plaintiff] anything but a black eye."

Talegalla, n. aboriginal name for the Brush-Turkey, and the scientific name for that bird, viz., Talegalla lathami, Gray. See Turkey.

Tallow-wood, n. another name for one of the Stringy-barks (q.v.), Eucalyptus microcorys, F. v. M., N.O. Myrtaceae. The timber, which is hard, gives forth an oily substance: hence the name. The tree reaches a great height. Also called Turpentine-tree (q.v.). See also Peppermint.

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 493:

"In Queensland it is known as 'Peppermint,' the foliage being remarkably rich in volatile oil. But its almost universal name is Tallow-wood. North of Port Jackson it bears the name of 'Turpentine Tree' and 'Forest Mahogany.' The aboriginals of the Brisbane River, Queensland, call it 'tee.'"

Ibid. p. 494:

"Tallow-wood.—Used . . . for flooring, e.g. in ball-rooms; for this purpose it is selected on account of its greasy nature. This greasiness is most marked when it is fresh cut. (General Report, Sydney International Exhibition, 1879.)"

1897. 'The Argus,' Feb. 22, p. 5, col. 4 (Cable message from London):

"Mr. Richards stated that the New South Wales black butt and tallow wood were the most durable and noiseless woods for street-paving."

Tallygalone, n. a fish of New South Wales, Myxus elongatus, Gunth., a genus of the family Mugilidae, or Grey-Mullet. The word is also spelled talleygalann, and tallagallan. Also called Sand-Mullet.

Tamarind-Tree, name given to Diploglottis cunninghamii, Hook., N.O. Sapindaceae; called also Native Tamarind. "A tall tree. The flesh of the fruit is amber and of delightful acid flavour." (Bailey.)

Tambaroora, n. a Queensland game. More generally known as "A shilling in and the winner shouts." From a town in Queensland.

1882. A. J. Boyd, 'Old Colonials,' p. 63:

"The exciting game of tambaroora . . . Each man of a party throws a shilling, or whatever sum may be mutually agreed upon, into a hat. Dice are then produced, and each man takes three throws. The Nut who throws highest keeps the whole of the subscribed capital, and out of it pays for the drinks of the rest."

Tamure, n. the Maori name for the New Zealand Schnapper fish (q.v.).

1820. 'Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand' (Church Missionary Society), p. 206:

"Tamure s. Bream fish."

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 93:

"There are many other sorts of fish, including the tamure, or snapper, the manga, or barracouta, the mango, or dog-fish, of which the natives catch large quantities, and the hapuka. This last fish is caught in pretty deep water, near reefs and rocks. It often attains a great size, attaining as much as 112 pounds. It bears a considerable resemblance to the cod in form, but is, however, of far finer flavour."

1855. Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 413:

"Tamure, kouarea (the snapper), is a large fish like the bream."

1879. W. Colenso, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' vol. xii. art. vii. p. 118:

"The tamure is the snapper (Pagrus unicolor), a common fish on all the coasts."

Tandan, n. the aboriginal name for the Catfish (q.v.) or Eel-fish (q.v.), Copidoglanis tandanus, Mitchell (or Plotosus tandanus). Mitchell, who first discovered and described the Cat-fish, called it the Tandan, or Eel-fish.

1838. T. Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions,' pp. 44, 45, pl. 5:

"In this piece of water we caught some small fish, two of them being of a rather singular kind, resembling an eel in the head and shape of the tail."

[p. 45]: "On my return to the camp in the evening, I made a drawing of the eel fish which we had caught early in the day (fig. 2, pl. 5)."

Tanekaha, n. Maori name of a New Zealand tree; also called Celery-topped Pine, Phyllocladus trichomanoides, Don., N.O. Coniferae.

1875. T. Laslett, 'Timber and Timber Trees,' p. 306:

"The Tanakaha Tree (Podocarpus asplenifolius) is found scattered over a large portion of the northern island of New Zealand. . . Height, sixty to eighty feet. . . The wood is close and straight in the grain. . . It works up well, is tough and very strong; so much so that the New Zealanders say it is the 'strong man' among their forest trees."

1883. J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 125:

"Tanakaha. A slender, handsome tree, sixty feet high; trunk rarely exceeds three feet in diameter; wood pale, close-grained, and excellent for planks and spars; resists decay in moist positions in a remarkable manner."

Tangi, n. (pronounced Tang-y) Maori word for a lamentation, a cry, or dirge.

1820. 'Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand' (Church Missionary Society), p. 207:

"Tangi, s. a cry or lamentation."

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 194:

"They wrapped the mutilated corpse in his red blanket, and bore it, lashed to a tree, to the village, where the usual tangi took place."

1873. Lieut.-Colonel St. John, 'Pakeha Rambles through Maori Lands,' p. 154:

"Shortly afterwards a 'tangi' was held over those of the party whose remains could be identified."

1881. J. L. Campbell, 'Poenamo,' p.191:

"Perhaps some old woman did a quiet tangi over his grave."

1883. F. S. Renwick, 'Betrayed,' p. 41:

"'Tis the tangi floats on the seaborne breeze, In its echoing notes of wild despair."

Taniwha, n. Maori name for a mythical monster.

1820. 'Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand' (Church Missionary Society), p. 207:

"Taniwa, s. a sea-monster so called."

1842. W. R. Wade, 'Journey in New Zealand' (Hobart Town), p. 34:

"Hearing us use the word tapu, as we looked towards it, one of our boatmen quickly repeated that the place was tapued for the tanewa (a water demon). 'And I wonder,' was his irreverent addition, 'what this same tanewa may be! An old pot leg, perhaps!'"

1896. 'Otago Witness,' Jan. 23, p. 51, col. 2:

"The river at one time is reported as having been infested with taniwhas—gigantic fish that used to swallow the natives—and a Maori pointed out a deep pool under some willows, and told me his grandfather had been seized by one of these monsters at that spot, dragged to the bottom and eaten. This taniwha, which was about forty feet in length and had a long mane, was in the habit of sometimes standing almost erect in the water, and frightening the women and children out of their wits. It had a tremendous-sized head, and its mouth somewhat resembled the beak of a very large bird. Its neck was about six feet in circumference and was covered with scales, as likewise its body down to its tail, which was formed by a series of fin-shaped projections, and somewhat resembled in form the tail of a grey duck. It had two short legs which were as big around as the body of a half-grown pig, and with one kick it could knock a hole through the stoutest canoe."

Tannergrams, n. very recent New Zealand slang. On 1st of June, 1896, the New Zealand Government reduced the price of telegrams to sixpence (slang, a 'tanner') for twelve words.

1896. 'Oamaru Mail,' June 13:

"Tannergrams is the somewhat apt designation which the new sixpenny telegrams have been christened in commercial vernacular."

Tappa, n. South-sea Island word. A native cloth made from the bark of the Paper-mulberry, Broussonetia papyrifera, Benth.

1886. 'Art journal: Exhibition Supplement,' p. 24:

"The Tappa, or native cloth [of Fiji], made from the bark of a tree. . . Has been extensively used in the draping of the court."

1888. H. S. Cooper, 'The Islands of the Pacific,' p. 9:

"Tappa, a native cloth of spotless white, made from the bark of the mulberry-tree.'

Tapu, adj. a Maori word, but common also to other Polynesian languages. The origin of the English word taboo. It properly means 'prohibited.' There was a sacred tapu, and an unclean tapu. What was consecrated to the gods was forbidden to be touched or used by the people.

1820. 'Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand' (Church Missionary Society), p. 208:

"Tapu, a. sacred, inviolable."

1835. W. Yate, 'Some Account of New Zealand,' p. 84:

"This system of consecration—for that is the most frequent meaning of the term 'tapu'—has prevailed through all the islands of the South Seas, but nowhere to a greater extent than in New Zealand."

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 194:

"They wrapped the mutilated corpse in his red blanket, and bore it, lashed to a tree, to the village, where the usual tangi took place after it had been deposited in the wahi tapu, or sacred ground.'"

1859. A. S. Thomson, M.D., 'Story of New Zealand,' p. 100:

"The primary meaning of the Maori word tapu is 'sacred'; tabut is a Malay word, and is rendered 'the Ark of the Covenant of God'; taboot is a Hindoo word signifying 'a bier,' 'a coffin,' or 'the Ark of the Covenant'; ta is the Sanscrit word 'to mark,' and pu 'to purify.'"

[There is no authority in this polyglot mixture.]

1879. Clement Bunbury, 'Fraser's Magazine,' June, 'A Visit to the New Zealand Geysers,' p. 767:

"I had not much time to examine them closely, having a proper fear of the unknown penalties incurred by the violation of anything 'tapu' or sacred."

1893. 'Otago Witness,' Dec. 21, p. 10, col. 1:

"He seeks treasures which to us are tapu."

Tapu, n. the state of being consecrated or forbidden.

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 25:

"We found no natives, the cove being under tapu, on account of its being the burial-place of a daughter of Te Pehi, the late chief of the Kapiti, or Entry Island, natives."

1847. A. Tennyson, 'Princess,' canto iii. l. 261:

". . . Women up till this Cramp'd under worse than South-Sea-Isle taboo, Dwarfs of the gynaeceum."

1851. Mrs. Wilson, 'New Zealand,' p. 24:

"But chiefly thou, mysterious Tapu, From thy strange rites a hopeful sign we draw."

1852. G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes' (edition 1855), p. 281:

"The tapu, which either temporarily or permanently renders sacred an object animate or inanimate, is the nearest approach to the Hindoo religious exclusive-ism."

1872. A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 89:

"His sole 'tapu' a far securer guard Than lock and key of craftiest notch and ward."

Ibid. p. 100:

"Avenge each minor breach of this taboo."

Tapu, v. originally to mark as sacred, and later to place under a ban. English, taboo.

1852. G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes' (edition 1855), p. 284:

"The tapued resting-place of departed chieftains."

1875. 'Spectator' (Melbourne), May 29, p. 40, col. 2:

"I . . . found the telegraph office itself tabooed."

1893. R. L. Stevenson, 'Island Nights' Entertainments,' p. 39:

"By Monday night I got it clearly in my head I must be tabooed."

Tara, n. (1) Maori name for the birds Sterna caspia, Pallas, and S. frontalis, Gray, the Sea-Swallow, or Tern (q.v.).

(2) A Tasmanian aboriginal name for the fern Pteris aquilina, L., N.O. Polypodeae.

1834. Ross, 'Van Diemen's Land Annual,' p. 129:

"The most extensively diffused eatable roots of Van Diemen's Land are those of the tara fern . . . greatly resembles Pteris aquilina, the common fern, brake, breckon, or brackin, of England . . . it is known among the aborigines by the name of tara . . . the root of the tara fern possesses much nutritive matter."

Taraire, n. Maori name for a New Zealand tree; formerly Nesodaphne tarairi, Hook., now Beilschmiedia tarairi, Benth. and Hook., N.O. Laurineae.

1873. 'Catalogue of Vienna Exhibition':

"Tarairi. Used for most of the purposes for which sycamore is applied in Europe."

1883. J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 129:

"Tarairi. A lofty forest tree, sixty to eighty feet high, with stout branches. Wood white, splits freely, but not much valued."

Tarakihi, n. the Maori name for the fish Chilodactylus macropterus, Richards.; called in Sydney the Norwong (q.v.).

Tarata, n. Maori name for the New Zealand tree Pittosporum eugenioides, A. Cunn., N.O. Pittosporeae; called also Mapau, Maple, etc. See Mapau.

1876. W. n. Blair, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' vol. ix., art. x. p. 143:

"A small tree seldom exceeding thirty feet in height, and twelve inches in diameter. It has pale green shining leaves and purple flowers. The wood of a dirty white colour, is tough and fibrous."

1879. J. B. Armstrong, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' vol. xii. art. xlix. p. 329:

"The tarata or Lemon-wood, a most beautiful tree, also used for hedges."

1889. E. H. and S. Featon, 'New Zealand Flora,' p. 35:

"The Tarata. This elegant tree is found on the east coast of both islands. It attains a height of from twenty to thirty feet, and has a stem from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter. It is known to the settlers in some parts as 'Lemon-wood.' When displaying its profuse masses of pale golden flowers, it is very pretty."

Tare, Native, n. name applied in Tasmania to the plant Swainsonia lessertiaefolia, De C., N.O. Leguminosae.

Taro, n. a familiar food plant, Colocasia species, widely cultivated in tropical regions, especially in Polynesia. The word is Polynesian, and much used by the Maoris.

1846. J. Lindley, 'Vegetable Kingdom,' p. 128 [Stanford]:

"Whole fields of Colocasia macrorhyza are cultivated in the South Sea Islands under the name tara or kopeh roots."

1872. A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 374:

"Many a bed, That late in such luxurious neatness spread, Of melons, maize and taro—now a wreck."

1878. Lady Brassey, 'Voyage in the Sunbeam,' p. 263:

"A good-looking man was busy broiling beef-steaks, stewing chickens and boiling taro, and we had soon a plentiful repast set before us."

Tarsipes, n. the scientific generic name of the Tait (q.v.).

Tarwhine, n. an Australian fish, Chrysophrys sarba, Forsk. See Black-Bream. It is somewhat difficult to distinguish the fish from its close relation the Black-Bream, Chrysophrys australis, Gunth. Both are excellent food, and frequently abundant in brackish waters.

Tar-wood, n. name given by the Otago bushmen to the tree Darrydium colensoi, Hook.; Maori name, Manoao (q.v.). (Kirk, 'Forest Flora,' p. 189.)

Tasmania, n. island and colony, formerly called Van Diemen's Land. The new name, from that of the Dutch navigator, Abel Jansen Tasman, was officially adopted in 1853, when the system of transportation ceased. The first quotations show it was in popular use much earlier.

1820. Lieut. Charles Jeffreys, 'Delineation of the Island of Van Dieman's Land,' p. 1:

"Van Dieman's Land, or Tasmania, is an island of considerable extent."

1823. 'Godwin's Emigrant's Guide to Van Diemen's Land, more properly called Tasmania':


1827. P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 8:

"Over Van Diemen's Land (or Tasmania, as we love to call it here), New South Wales enjoys also many advantages."

1852. G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes' (edition 1855), p. 491:

"Tasmania is a more musical alias adopted by the island. It has been given in titular distinction to the first bishop, my excellent and accomplished friend Dr. Nixon, and will doubtless be its exclusive designation when it shall have become a free nation."

1892. A. and G. Sutherland, 'History of Australia,' p. 41:

"The wild country around the central lakes of Tasmania."

Tasmanian, adj. belonging or native to Tasmania.

1825. A. Bent, 'The Tasmanian Almanack for the Year of our Lord 1825'


Tasmanian, n. an inhabitant of Tasmania, a colonist. The word is also used of the aborigines, the race of whom is now extinct.

Tasmanian Devil, n. the only species of the genus Sarcophilus (q.v.), S. ursinus.

1894. R. Lydekker, 'Marsupialia,' p. 156:

"Like many of its kindred, the Tasmanian Devil is a burrowing and nocturnal animal. In size it may be compared to a Badger, and owing to its short limbs, plantigrade feet, and short muzzle, its gait and general appearance are very Badger or Bear-like."

Tasmanian Tiger, n. called also Native Wolf, Marsupial Wolf, Zebra Wolf, and Hyaena; genus, Thylacinus (q.v.). It is the largest carnivorous marsupial extant, and is so much like a wolf in appearance that it well deserves its vernacular name of Wolf, though now-a-days it is generally called Tiger. There is only one species, Thylacinus cynocephalus, and the settlers have nearly exterminated it, on account of its fierce predatory habits and the damage it inflicts on their flocks. The Tasmanian Government pays L1 for every one destroyed. The Van Diemen's Land Company in the North-West of the Island employs a man on one of its runs who is called the "tiger-catcher."

1813. 'History of New South Wales' (1818), p. 430:

"About Port Dalrymple an animal was discovered which bore some resemblance to the hyena both in shape and fierceness; with a wide mouth, strong limbs, sharp claws and a striped skin. Agreeably to the general nature of New South Wales quadrupeds, this animal has a false belly. It may be considered as the most formidable of any which New South Wales has been yet found to produce, and is very destructive; though there is no instance of its attacking the human species."

1832. Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 85:

"During our stay a native tiger or hyena bounded from its lair beneath the rocks."

1880. Mrs. Meredith, 'Friends and Foes,' p. 65:

"There is another charming fellow, which all the people here call the Tiger, but as a tiger is like a great cat, and this beast is much more like a dog, you will see how foolish this name is. I believe naturalists call it the dog-faced opossum, and that is not much better . . . the body is not a bit like that of an opossum."

1892. A. Sutherland, 'Elementary Geography of British Colonies,' p. 273:

"The 'Tasmanian tiger' is of the size of a shepherd's dog, a gaunt yellow creature, with black stripes round the upper part of its body, and with an ugly snout. Found nowhere but in Tasmania, and never numerous even there, it is now slowly disappearing."

Tasmanian Whiptail, n. a Tasmanian fish, Coryphaenoides tasmaniae, family Macruridae, or deep-sea Gadoids, an altogether different fish from Myliobatis aquila, the Eagle or Whiptail Ray, which also occurs in Tasmania, but is found all over the world.

Tasmanite, n. a mineral. "A resinous, reddish-brown, translucent, hydrocarbon derivative (C40H6202S), found in certain laminated shales of Tasmania, Resiniferous shale." ('Standard.')

Tassel-fish, n. a thread-fish of Queensland, of the genus Polynemus, family Polynemidae. Polynemoid fish have free filaments at the humeral arch below the pectoral fins, which Guenther says are organs of touch, and to be regarded as detached portions of the fin; in some the filaments or threads are twice as long as the fish.

Tassy, n. a pet name for Tasmania.

1894. 'The Argus,' Jan. 26, p. 3, col. 5:

"To-day Tassy—as most Victorian cricketers and footballers familiarly term our neighbour over the straits—will send a team into the field."

Tattoo, v. and n. to mark the human body with indelible pigments. The word is Polynesian; its first occurrence in English is in Cook's account of Tahiti. The Tahitian word is Tatau, which means tattoo marks on the human skin, from Ta, which means a mark or design. (Littre.) The Maori verb, ta, means to cut, to tattoo, to strike. See Moko.

1773. 'Hawkesworth's Voyages' (Cook's First Voyage; at Tahiti, 1769), vol. ii. p. 191:

"They have a custom of staining their bodies . . . which they call Tattowing. They prick the skin, so as just not to fetch blood, with a small instrument, something in the form of a hoe. . . . The edge is cut into sharp teeth or points . . . they dip the teeth into a mixture of a kind of lamp-black . . . The teeth, thus prepared, are placed upon the skin, and the handle to which they are fastened being struck by quick smart blows, they pierce it, and at the same time carry into the puncture the black composition, which leaves an indelible stain."

1777. Horace Walpole, 'Letters,' vol. vi. p. 448:

"Since we will give ourselves such torrid airs, I wonder we don't go stark and tattoo ourselves."

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 109:

"A very famous artist in tatu came with the party, and was kept in constant and profitable employment. Everybody, from the renowned warrior to the girl of twelve years old, crowded to be ornamented by the skilful chisel. . . . The instruments used were not of bone, as they used formerly to be; but a graduated set of iron tools, fitted with handles like adzes, supplied their place. . . . The staining liquid is made of charcoal."

1847. A. Tennyson, 'Princess,' canto ii. l. 105:

". . . Then the monster, then the man; Tattoo'd or woaded, winter-clad in skins, Raw from the prime, and crushing down his mate."

1859. A. S. Thomson, 'Story of New Zealand,' vol. i. c. iv. p. 74:

"First among the New Zealand list of disfigurations is tattooing, a Polynesian word signifying a repetition of taps, but which term is unknown in the language of the New Zealanders; moko being the general term for the tattooing on the face, and whakairo for that on the body." [But see Moko.]

1872. A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 17:

"Lips no stain of tattoo had turned azure."

Ibid. p. 104:

"A stick knobbed with a carved and tattoo'd wooden head."

1873. J. B. Stephens, 'Black Gin,' p. 3:

"Thy rugged skin is hideous with tattooing."

Tawa, n. Maori name for a New Zealand tree, Nesodaphne tawa, Hook., N.O. Laurineae. The newer name is Beilschmiedia tawa, Benth. and Hook. f. Allied to Taraire (q.v.). A handsome forest tree with damson-like fruit.

1883. J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 129:

"Tawa. A lofty forest tree, sixty to seventy feet high, with slender branches. The wood is light and soft, and is much used for making butter-kegs."

Tawara, n. Maori name for the flower of the Kie-kie (q.v.), Freycinetia Banksii.

Tawhai, or Tawai, n. Maori name for several species of New Zealand Beech-trees, N.O. Cupuliferae. The settlers call them Birches (q.v.).

1873. 'Catalogue of Vienna Exhibition':

"Tawhai. Large and durable timber, used for sleepers."

1883. J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 125:

"Tawhai, Red-birch (from colour of bark). A handsome tree, eighty to one hundred feet high. Fagus Menziesii, Hook. [also called large-leaved birch]. Tawhai, Tawhairaunui, Black-birch of Auckland and Otago (from colour of bark), Fagus fusca, Hook."

Tawhiri, or Tawiri, n. Maori name for the Black Mapau. A name applied to the tree Pittosporum tenuifolium, N.O. Pittosporeae. It is profusely covered with a fragrant white blossom. See Mapau.

1872. A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 108:

"Its floor . . . with faint tawhiri leaves besprent "

1884. T. Bracken, 'Lays of Maori,' p. 21:

"The early breeze that . . . stole The rich Tawhiri's sweet perfume."

Tea, n.—

Billy-tea, or Bush-tea. Tea made in a billy (q.v.). There is a belief that in order to bring out the full flavour it should be stirred with a gum-stick.

New Zealand tea. Tea made of the leaves of Manuka (q.v.). See Tea-tree.

Sweet-tea, or Botany-Bay tea, or Australian tea. (Called also Native Sarsaparilla. See Sarsaparilla.) A plant, Smilax glycyphylla, Smith., N.O. Liliaceae.

1788. D. Considen, letter to Sir Joseph Banks, Nov. 18, in 'Historical Records of New South Wales,' vol. i. part ii. p. 220:

"I have sent you some of the sweet tea of this country, which I recommend, and is generally used by the marines and convicts. As such it is a good anti-scorbutic, as well as a substitute for that which is more costly."

1790. J. White, 'Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 195:

"The sweet-tea, a creeping kind of vine . . . the taste is sweet, exactly like the liquorice-root of the shops. Of this the convicts and soldiers make an infusion which is tolerably pleasant, and serves as no bad succedaneum for tea."

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 203:

"'Sweet tea' . . . The decoction made from its leaves . . . is similar in properties, but more pleasant in taste, than that obtained from the roots of S. officinalis, or Jamaica sarsaparilla. The herb is a common article of trade among Sydney herbalists."

Tea-broom, n. a New Zealand name for the Tea-tree (q.v.).

1872. A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' [Notes] p. 505:

"Manuka. . . . The settlers often call it 'tea-broom.'"

Teak, n. The original Teak is an East Indian timber-tree, Tectina grandis, but the name has been transferred to other trees in different parts of the world, from a similarity in the hardness of their wood. In Australia, it is given to Dissiliaria baloghioides, F. v. M., N.O. Euphorbiaceae; to Endiandra glauca, R. Br., N.O. Leguminosae; and to Flindersia Bennettiana, F. v. M., N.O. Meliaceae. In New Zealand, it is Vitex littoralis; Maori name, Puriri (q.v.).

Teal, n. the common English name given to the small ducks of the genus Querquedula. In Australia, the name is applied to Anas castanea, Eyton; and to the Grey Teal, A. gibberifrons, Mull. See also Goose-teal.

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 291:

"Brown returned with . . . four teals (Querquedula castanea)." [The old name.]

Tea-tree, n. (Very frequently, but erroneously, spelt Ti-tree, and occasionally, more ridiculously still, Ti-tri, q.v.) A name given in Australia, New Zealand, and Tasmania to several species of trees and shrubs whose leaves were used by Captain Cook's sailors, by escaped convicts, and by the early settlers as a ready substitute for the leaves of the Chinese Tea-plant (Thea chinensis) for making tea. The trees of the genera Leptospermum and Melaleuca were the earliest used, in Australia and New Zealand, in this way. When in blossom, the branches of many species, with their little white flowers, and the general appearance of their leaves, bear a strong resemblance to those of the true Tea-plant. Their leaves, though exceedingly aromatic, have not, however, the same flavour. Nevertheless, it was probably this superficial likeness which first suggested the experiment of making an infusion from them. Some of the species of Leptospermum and Melaleuca are so closely allied, that their names are by some botanists interchanged and used as synonyms for the same plant.

Although not all of the species of these two genera were used for making tea, yet, as a tree-name, the word Tea-tree is indifferently and loosely used to denote nearly all of them, especially in the form Tea-tree scrub, where they grow, as is their habit, in swamps, flat-land, and coastal districts. Other trees or plants to which the name of Tea-tree was occasionally given, are species of the genera Kunzea and Callistemon.

The spelling Ti-tree is not only erroneous as to the origin of the name, but exceedingly misleading, as it confuses the Australian Tea-tree with another Ti (q.v.) in Polynesia (Cordyline ti). This latter genus is represented, in Australia and New Zealand, by the two species Cordyline australis and C. indivisa, the Cabbage-trees (q.v.), or Cabbage palms (q.v.), or Ti-palms (q.v.), or Ti (q.v.), which are a marked feature of the New Zealand landscape, and are of the lily family (N.O. Liliaceae), while the genera Leptospermum and Melaleuca are of the myrtle family (N.O. Myrtaceae).

As to the species of the Australian Tea-tree, that first used by Cook's sailors was either—Leptospermum scoparium, R. and G. Forst.,

or L. lanigerum, Smith.

The species most used for infusions was—

L. fravescens, Smith (syn. L. thea, Willd., and Melaleuca thea, Willd.).

The Coast Tea-tree, common on the Victorian shores, and so useful as a sand-binder, is—

L. laevigatum, F. v. M.

The Common Australian Tea-tree (according to Maiden) is Melaleuca leucodendron, Linn.; called also White Tea-tree, Broad-leaved T.-t., Swamp T.-t., and Paper-bark T.-t.

The name, however, as noted above, is used for all species of Melaleuca, the Swamp Tea-tree being M. ericifolia, Smith, and the Black, or Prickly-leaved Tea-tree, M. styphelioides, Smith.

Of the other genera to which the name is sometimes applied, Kunzea pedunculata, F. v. M., is called Mountain Tea-tree, and Callistemon salignus, De C., is called—

Broad-leaved, or River Tea-tree.

In New Zealand, the Maori name Manuka (q.v.) is more generally used than Tea-tree, and the tree denoted by it is the original one used by Cook's sailors.

Concerning other plants, used in the early days for making special kinds of infusions and drinking them as tea, see under Tea, and Cape-Barren Tea.

1777. Cook's 'Voyage towards the South Pole and Round the World' [2nd Voyage], vol. i. p. 99:

"The beer certainly contributed not a little. As I have already observed, we at first made it of a decoction of the spruce leaves; but finding that this alone made the beer too astringent, we afterwards mixed with it an equal quantity of the tea plant (a name it obtained in my former voyage from our using it as tea then, as we also did now), which partly destroyed the astringency of the other, and made the beer exceedingly palatable, and esteemed by every one on board."

[On page 100, Cook gives a description of the tea-plant, and also figures it. He was then at Dusky Bay, New Zealand.]

1790. J. White, 'Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 229:

"Tea Tree of New South Wales, Melaleuca (?) Trinervia. This is a small shrub, very much branched. . . . It most nearly approaches the Leptospermum virgatum of Forster, referred by the younger Linnaeus, perhaps improperly, to Melaleuca."

1820. C. Jeffreys, R.N., 'Geographical and Descriptive Delineations of the Island of Van Dieman's Land,' p. 133:

"Of course they [the Bushrangers] are subject to numerous privations, particularly in the articles of tea, sugar, tobacco, and bread; for this latter article, however, they substitute the wild yam, and for tea they drink a decoction of the sassafras and other shrubs, particularly one which they call the tea-tree bush."

1820. W. C. Wentworth, 'Description of New South Wales,' p. 175:

"On Monday the bushrangers were at a house at Tea-tree Brush."

1827. P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 200:

"The leaves of the tea-tree furnished the colonists with a substitute for the genuine plant in the early period of the colony, and from their containing a saccharine matter required no sugar."

1830. R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 78:

"This boy got some bark from a tree called the tea-tree, which makes excellent torches."

1832. J. Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' c. ii. p. 25:

"The tea-tree grows in wet situations . . . the leaves infused make a pleasant beverage, and with a little sugar form a most excellent substitute for tea."

1834. Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 134:

"Leptospermum lanigerum, Hoary tea-tree; Acacia decurrens, Black wattle; Conaea alba, Cape-Barren tea. The leaves of these have been used as substitutes for tea in the colony, as have also the leaves and bark of Cryptocarya glaucescens, the Australian Sasafras" (sic) [q.v.].

1845. J. O. Balfour, 'Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 39:

"The Australian myrtles, or tea-trees, are to be found in thick clusters, shading rocky springs. . . . Its leaves I have seen made into a beverage called tea. It, however, was loathsome, and had not the slightest resemblance to any known Chinese tea."

1845. R. Howitt, 'Australia,' p. 85:

"Often we had to take the boat down the river several miles, to cut reeds amongst the tea-tree marshes, to thatch our houses with."

1846. G. H. Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix;' p. 33:

"A great quantity of the tea-tree (Leptospermum) scrubs, which formerly lined both banks of the Yarra."

(p. 84): "It is allied to the myrtle family (Melaleuca) . . . A decoction of the leaves is a fair substitute for tea, yielding a beverage of a very aromatic flavour."

1855. W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 210:

"Dense with tea-trees and wattles shrouding the courses of the stream."

1862. H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 126:

"Half-hidden in a tea-tree scrub, A flock of dusky sheep were spread."

1870. A. L. Gordon, 'Bush Ballads,' p. 14:

"Through the tea-tree scrub we dashed."

1871. C. L. Money, 'Knocking About in New Zealand,' p. 70:

"Chiefly covered with fern and tea-tree (manuka) scrub."

1871. T. Bracken, 'Behind the Tomb,' p. 60:

"Sobbing through the tea-tree bushes, Low and tender, loud and wild, Melancholy music gushes."

1875. T. Laslett, 'Timber and Timber Trees,' p. 2o6:

Table of Tasmanian woods found in low marshy ground.

Hgt. Dia. Used.

Swamp Tea-tree 12 ft. 6 in. Useless.

Tea-tree 30 " 9 " } Turners' and } Agricultural Musk Tea-tree 12 " small } Implements.

1877. Baron von Mueller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 18:

"We have among them [the Myrtaceae] . . . the native tea-trees, inappropriately so called, as these bushes and trees never yield substitutes for tea, although a New Zealand species was used in Captain Cook's early expedition, to prepare a medicinal infusion against scurvy; these so-called tea-trees comprise within our colony [Victoria], species of Leptospermum, Kunzea, Melaleuca and Callistemon, the last-mentioned genus producing flowers with long stamens, on which the appellation of 'Bottle-brushes' has been bestowed."

1880. W. Senior, 'Travel and Trout,' p. 78:

"Numerous flowering shrubs, such as the tea-tree, native lilac, and many another that varies the colour and softly scents the atmosphere."

1880. Mrs.Meredith, 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 221:

"Thickets of tea-tree, white with lovely hawthorn-like flowers."

1881. A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. ii. p. 19:

"Along the water's edge, noble titrees, whose drooping branches swept the stream, formed a fringe, the dark green of their thick foliage being relieved."

1883. C. Harpur, 'Poems,' p. 78:

"Why roar the bull-frogs in the tea-tree marsh?"

1884. R. L. A. Davies, 'Poems and Literary Remains,' p. 84:

"Shading a brook the tea-trees grew, Spangled with blossoms of whitish hue, Which fell from the boughs to the ground below, As fall from heaven the flakes of snow."

1885. R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 112:

"The bottle-brush flowers of the ti-trees."

1888. Baron Ferdinand von Mueller, 'Select Extra-Tropical Plants,' p. 221:

"The somewhat aromatic leaves of Liscoparium (Forster) were already in Captain Cook's Expedition used for an antiscorbutic Tea, hence the name tea-tree for this and some allied plants."

1888. D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 76:

"The intrusive ti-tree. . . . The dark line of ti-tree in the foreground . . ."

1889. T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' pp. 235, 236:

"Leptospermum scoparium, Forster, the Manuka. . . . It is commonly termed 'tea-tree' by the settlers, but must not be confounded with the 'ti' or 'toi' of the Maories, which is a handsome palm-lily, Cordyline australis, often termed 'cabbage-tree' by the bushmen."

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 38:

"Leptospermum scoparium, Tea Tree. It is said that this is the shrub the leaves of which were utilized by the crews of Captain Cook's ships for the purpose of making 'tea,' and that they were also used with spruce leaves in equal quantity for the purpose of correcting the astringency in brewing a beer from the latter. It is exceedingly common about Sydney, so large quantities would therefore be available to the sailors. Species of this genus are exceedingly abundant not far from the coast, and the leaves would be very readily available, but the taste of the infusion made from them is too aromatic for the European palate."

[In Maiden's admirable book slips are very rare. But he is mistaken here in the matter of the abundance of the tree at Sydney having any reference to the question. Captain Cook had but one ship, the Endeavour; and it never entered Port Jackson. It is true that L. scoparium was the tree used by Cook, but he was then at Dusky Bay, New Zealand, and it was there that he used it. See quotations 1777 and 1877.]

1890. C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 24:

"The well-known Melaleuca Leucadendron, called by the colonists tea-tree, from which is extracted what is known in medicine as cajeput oil."

1893. 'The Australasian,' Jan 14:

"The ti-tree on either side of the road was in bloom, its soft, fluffy, creamy bushes gathering in great luxuriance on the tops of the taller trees, almost hiding the green."

1893. 'The Argus,' April 29, p. 4, col. 4:

"There was many a shorthorned Hereford hidden in the innermost recesses of that tick and sand-fly infested ti-tree that knew not the cunning of a stockman's hand."

1894. 'Melbourne Museum Catalogue—Economic Woods':

"No. 133, Coast tea-tree, Leptospermum laevigatum, F. v. M. No. 142, Swamp tea-tree, Melaleuca ericifolia, Smith."

Teetee. Same as Ti-Ti (q.v.).

Telopea, n. scientific name of the genus containing the flower called the Waratah (q.v.), from the Greek taelowpos, 'seen from afar,' in allusion (as the author of the name, Robert Brown, himself says) to the conspicuous crimson flowers. The name has been corrupted popularly into Tulip, and the flower is often called the Native Tulip.

1835. Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 110:

"The beautiful crimson flowering shrub, with dark green rhododendron-like leaves, which grows in the upper region of Mount Wellington. . . . The generic name is derived from telopos, seen at a distance. It has been corrupted into tulip tree, to which it bears not the least resemblance."

Tena koe, a Maori salutation used in North Island of New Zealand. Lit. "That is you," and meaning "How do you do?"

Tena and Tera both mean 'that'; but tena implies the idea of nearness, 'that near you,' tera the idea of distance, 'that (or there) away yonder.' Hence, while Tena koe is a welcome, Tera koe would be an insult.

Tench, n. slang term, used during the days of transportation, for the Hobart Town Penitentiary, or Prisoners' Barracks—a corruption of "'tentiary," which is for Penitentiary. It is now obsolete.

1859. Caroline Leakey, 'The Broad Arrow,' vol. ii. p. 32:

"Prisoners' barracks, sir—us calls it Tench."

Teraglin, n. a fish of New South Wales, Otolithus atelodus, Gunth. The name Teraglin is stated to be aboriginal. Sometimes called Jew-fish (q.v.).

Thickhead, n. the name applied to the Australian birds of the genus Pachycephala (q.v.). They are often called Thrushes. The species are—

The Banded Thickhead Pachycephala pectoralis, Vig. and Hors.

Black T.— P. melanura, Gould.

Gilbert's T.— P. gilbertii, Gould.

Grey-tailed T.— P. glaucura, Gould (confined to Tasmania).

Lunated T.— P. falcata, Gould.

Olivaceous T.— P. olivacea, Vig. and Hors. (confined to Tasmania).

Pale-breasted T.— P. pallida, Ramsay.

Plain-coloured T.— P. simplex, Gould.

Red-throated T.— P. rufigularis, Gould.

Rufous-breasted T.— P. rufiventris, Lath.

Shrike-like T.— Pachycephala lanoides, Gould.

Torres-straits T.— P. fretorum, De Vis.

Western T.— P. occidentalis, Ramsay.

White-throated T.— P. gutturalis, Lath.; called also the Thunder-bird (q.v.).

1890. 'Victorian Statutes—Game Act' (Third Schedule):

"Thick-heads. [Close season.] From the first day of August to the twentieth day of December next following in each year."

Thornback, n. special name for one of the Stingrays, Raia lemprieri, Richards., or Raja rostata, Castln., family Raijdae.

1875. 'Melbourne Spectator,' Aug. 28, p. 201, col. 3:

"A thornback skate . . . weighing 109 lbs., has been caught . . . at North Arm, South Australia."

Thousand-Jacket, n. a North Island name for Ribbon-wood (q.v.), a New Zealand tree. Layer after layer of the inner bark can be stripped off.

1888. Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iii. p. 210:

"Koninny [sic], raupo, toi-toi, supplejack, thousand-jacket, and the like, are names of things known well enough to the inhabitants of Napier and Taranaki, but to the average stay-at-home Englishman they are nouns which only vexatiously illustrate the difference between names and things."

1889. T. Kirk, 'Flora of New Zealand,' p. 87:

"Hoheria populnea. The Houhere. Order—Malvaceae. . . In the north of Auckland the typical form is known as 'houhere'; but Mr. Colenso informs me the varieties are termed 'houi' and 'whau-whi' in the south . . . By the settlers all the forms are termed 'ribbon-wood,' or less frequently 'lace-bark'— names which are applied to other plants: they are also termed 'thousand-jacket.'"

1896. 'The Australasian,' Aug. 28, p. 407, col. 5:

"'Thousand-jacket' is a picturesque name for a many-named New Zealand tree, the bark of which peels, and peels, and peels again, though in the number chosen there is certainly a note of exaggeration."

Throwing-stick, n. native Australian weapon, by means of which the spear is thrown. See Woomera.

1802. G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' c. i. p. 12:

"The principals who perform it come from, Cammer-ray, armed with shields, clubs, and throwing-sticks."

Ibid. c. i. p. 26:

"The throwing-stick is used in discharging the spear. The instrument is from two to three feet in length, with a shell on one end and a hook on the other."

1846. J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. i. p. 72:

"Natives . . . seemingly ignorant of the use of the throwing-stick."

1879. J. D. Woods, 'Native Tribes of South Australia,' Introd. p. xviii:

"The spear is propelled by a wommerah or throwing-stick, having at one end a kangaroo's tooth, fixed so as to fit into a notch at the end of the spear. This instrument gives an amount of leverage far beyond what would be excited by unaided muscular strength."

1880. Fison and Howitt, 'Kamilaroi and Kurnai,' p. 251:

"It is supposed that if the hair of a person is tied on the end of the throwing-stick. . . and roasted before the fire with some kangaroo fat, the person to whom it belonged will pine away and die."

1885. H. H. Hayter, 'Carboona,' p. 24:

"Warrk Warrk, having a dart on his throwing-stick ready adjusted, hurled it."

Thrush, n. This common English bird-name is applied in Australia and New Zealand to four different genera of birds, viz.—

(1) Collyriocincla, the Shrike-Thrushes (q.v.); the name Collyriocincla is a compound of two Greek bird-names, kolluriown /corr. from kolluriowu in Morris/, 'a bird, probably of the thrush kind, Arist. H. A. 9, 23, 2' ('L. & S.' /1869 p.864/), and kigalos, 'a kind of wag-tail or water-ousel' ('L. & S.'). The next two genera are derived in a similar way from gaer, earth, and 'opos, mountain.

(2) Geocincla, the Ground-Thrushes (q.v.).

(3) Oreocincla, the Mountain-Thrush (q.v.).

(4) Pachycephala (q.v.); called Thrushes, but more often Thickheads (q.v.).

(5) Turnagra (the New Zealand Thrushes), viz.—

T. hectori, Buller, North Island Thrush. T. crassirostris, Gmel., South Island Thrush.

The name Thrush was also applied loosely, by the early writers and travellers, to birds of many other genera which have since been more accurately differentiated. The common English thrush has been acclimatised in Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand.

Thunder-bird, n. an early name for one of the Thickheads (q.v.), or Pachycephalae (q.v.). See also quotation, 1896.

1827. Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. xv. p. 239:

"'This species,' Mr. Caley says, 'is called Thunder-bird by the colonists. . . . The natives tell me, that when it begins to thunder this bird is very noisy.'"

1848. J. Gould,' Birds of Australia,' vol. ii. pl. 64:

"Pachycephala Gutturalis, Thunder Bird, Colonists of New South Wales."

1896. A. J. North, 'List of the Insectivorous Birds of New South Wales,' part i. p. 3:

"Pachycephala gutturalis, Latham. 'Yellow-breasted Thick-head.' . . . From its habit of starting to sing immediately after a clap of thunder, the report of a gun, or any other loud and sudden noise, it is known to many residents of New South Wales as the Thunder-bird.'

"Pachycephala rufiventris, Latham. 'Rufous-breasted Thickhead.' . . . Also known as the 'Thunder-bird.'"

Thunder-dirt, n. In New Zealand, a gelatinous covering of a fungus (Ileodictyon cibarium) formerly eaten by the Maoris.

Thylacine, and Thylacinus, n. the scientific name of the genus of the animal called variously the Tasmanian Tiger (q.v.), Hyaena, Tasmanian Wolf, Zebra Wolf, and Marsupial Wolf. The first spelling is the Anglicised form of the word. (Grk. thulakos, a pouch, and kuown, a dog.)

1894. R. Lydekker, 'Marsupialia,' p. 153:

"The Thylacine appears to be generally found among caverns and rocks and the deep and almost impenetrable glens in the neighbourhood of the highest mountains of Tasmania."

Ti, n. the name of various species of trees of the genus Cordyline, N.O. Liliaceae. It exists in the Pacific Islands as C. Ti, and in New Zealand the species are C. australis and C. indivisa. It is called in New Zealand the Cabbage-tree (q.v.), and the heart used to be eaten by the settlers. The word is Polynesian. In Hawaiian, the form is Ki; in Maori, Ti. Compare Kanaka (q.v.) and Tangata. By confusion, Tea, in Tea-tree (q.v.), is frequently spelt Ti, and Tea-tree is sometimes spelt Ti-tri (q.v.).

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 58:

"In these natural shrubberies, too, and especially in wet situations, a kind of cabbage-tree, called ti by the natives, flourishes to great abundance."

1855. Rev. R. Taylor,' Te Ika a Maui,' p. 435:

"The ti (Cordyline australis or Dracoena australis) is found in great abundance. Though so common, it has a very foreign look . . . the leaf is that of a flag, the flower forms a large droop and is very fragrant."

1866. Lady Barker, 'Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 52:

"Ti-ti palms are dotted here and there, and give a foreign and tropical appearance to the whole."

1882. T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 297:

"An abundance of narrow strips of the tough, fibrous leaves of the ti-palm."

1890. W. Colenso, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' vol. xviii. art. lvii. p. 486:

"In these plains stand a number of cabbage-trees (Cordyline Australis), the ti-trees of the Maori. These often bear only a single head of long narrow harsh leaves at the top of their tall slender stems, but sometimes they are slightly branched, the branches also only bearing a similar tuft."

1892. 'Otago Witness,' Dec. 22, p. 7, col. 2:

"A small grove of ti-palms or cabbage-tree."

Tiaki (spelt also Tieke), n. Maori name for the Saddle-back or Jack-bird (q.v.).

1835. W. Yate, 'Account of New Zealand,' p. 56:

"Tiaki or purourou. This elegant bird is about the size of the sky-lark."

Tieke, n. Same as Tiaki (q.v.).

Tiers, pl. n. used in Tasmania as the usual word for mountains, in the same way as the word Ranges (q.v.) in Australia.

1876. W. B. Wildey, 'Australasia and Oceanic Region,' p. 320:

"Two chains of mountains, the eastern and western tiers, run through it nearly north and south."

1891. 'The Australasian,' April 4, p. 670, col. 2:

"That stuff as they calls horizontal, a mess of branches and root, The three barren tiers; and the Craycroft, that 'ud settle a bandicoot."

Tiersman, n. Tasmanian word for one who lives in the Tiers (q.v.).

1852. F. Lancelott, 'Australia as it is,' vol. ii. p. 115:

"Splatters, or, as they are commonly called tiersmen, reside in the forest of stringy bark . . ."

Tiger-Cat, n. special name applied to the Common and Spotted-tailed Native Cat. See under Cat.

1832. J. Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' c. ii. p. 52:

"The skins of the . . . opossum, tiger-cat, and platypus . . . are exported."

1852. Ronald C. Gunn, 'Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land,' vol. ii. p. 11:

"Dasyurus maculatus, Shaw. . . . The Spotted Martin, Phillip's 'Voy. to Botany Bay, p. 276. Martin Cat,' pl. 46. 'Tiger Cat' of the Colonists of Tasmania, to which island it is confined. It is distinguished from D. viverrinus, the 'Native Cat' of the Colonists, by its superior size and more robust form; also from the tail being spotted as well as the body."

1891. 'Guide to the Zoological Gardens, Melbourne':

"After the opossums comes a specimen of the tiger-cat (Dasyurus maculatus); this animal, which is so destructive to poultry, is well known throughout the country in Victoria."

Tiger, Tasmanian. See Thylacine and Tasmanian Tiger.

Tiger-Snake, n. See under Snake.

Tihore, n. Maori name for a species of New Zealand flax. Name used specially in the North Island for the best variety of Phormium (q.v.).

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 286:

"The species of Phormium tenax thus cultivated is the tihore, literally the 'skinning' flax. This name describes the ease with which it submits to the scraping process."

Tiki, n. Maori name for the Creator of man, and thence taken to represent an ancestor. The Maoris made large wooden images to represent their Tiki, and gave the name of Tiki to these images. Later they were made in miniature in greenstone (q.v.), and used as neck ornaments. See Heitiki.

Tit, n. common English bird name. Applied in Australia to the following species—

Broad-tailed Tit— Acanthiza apicalis, Gould.

Brown T.— A. pusilla, Lath.

Buff T.— Geobasileus reguloides, V. and H.

Chestnut-rumped T.— Acanthiza uropygialis, Gould.

Little T.— A. nana, Vig. and Hors.

Plain T.— A. inornata, Gould.

Red-rumped T.— A. pyrrhopygia, Gould.

Scaly-breasted T.— A. squamata, De Vis.

Scrub T.— Sericornis magna, Gould.

Striated T.— Acanthiza lineata, Gould.

Tasmanian T.— A. diemenensis, Gould; called also Brown-tail.

Yellow-rumped T.— Geobasileus chrysorrhoea, Quoy and Gaim.

See also Tree-tit.

Tit-fish, n. a name given in North Australia to the Sea-slug, or Trepang; because the appearance of its tentacles suggests the teat of a cow.

1880. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales,' vol. v. pt. ii. p. 128:

"G. F. Jaeger, in 1833, . . . enumerates four [species of Trepang), viz. Trepang edulis, T. ananas, T. impatiens and T. peruviana. The first of these is certainly found on the reefs, and is called by the fishermen 'redfish.' . . . Next to this is the 'tit-fish' . . . studded with somewhat distant large tentacles, which project nearly an inch or so."

1881. A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. ii. p. 22:

"They were engaged in smoking a large haul of 'tit' fish, which they had made on a neighbouring reef."

Ti-ti, n. Maori name for the sea-bird Pelecanoides urinatrix, Gmel., the Diving-petrel. Spelt also tee-tee.

1891. 'The Australasian,' Nov. 14, p. 963, col. 1 ('A Lady in the Kermadecs'):

"The petrels—there are nine kinds, and we have names of our own for them, the black burrower, the mutton-bird, the white burrower, the short-billed ti-ti, the long-billed ti-ti, the little storm petrel, and three others that we had no names for—abound on the island."

Tititpunamu, n. (spelt also Tititipunamu), n. Maori name for the bird Acanthidositta chloris, Sparm., the Rifleman (q.v.). It has many other Maori names.

Titoki, n. Maori name for the New Zealand tree, Alectryon excelsum, De C., N.O. Sapindaceae. Also called New Zealand Oak and New Zealand Ash. See Alectryon.

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 317:

"The berry of the titoki tree might be turned to account. The natives extract a very fine oil from it."

1872. A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 253:

The youth, with hands beneath his head, Against a great titoki's base."

1877. Anon., 'Colonial Experiences or Incidents of Thirty-four Years in New Zealand,' p: 16:

"For this purpose, titoki was deemed the most suitable timber, from its hardness and crooked growth resembling English oak."

1883. J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand, p. 131:

"Titoki, a beautiful tree with large panicles of reddish flowers . . . Wood has similar properties to ash. Its toughness makes it valuable for wheels, coachbuilding, etc."

1889. T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 183:

"It is sometimes termed 'the New Zealand ash,' doubtless on account of its resembling that tree in the shape of its foliage and in the toughness of its wood, but it is most generally known as the 'titoki.'"

1896. 'Otago Witness,' June 23, p. 42, col. 2:

"The saddling-paddock and the scales are surrounded by a fence made of stout titoki saplings, on which are perched the knowing."

Ti-tree, n. erroneous spelling of Tea-tree (q.v.). See also Manuka.

Titri, n. corruption for Tea-tree (q.v.), from the fancy that it is Maori, or aboriginal Australian. On the railway line, between Dunedin and Invercargill, there is a station called "Titri," evidently the surveyor's joke.

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