A Dictionary of Austral English
by Edward Morris
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1850. Major Greenwood, 'Journey from Taupo to Auckland,' p. 30:

"The good missionary . . . thrust upon us . . . some bottles of a most refreshing light beverage made from the leaves of the kawa-kawa tree, which in taste much resembled ginger-beer."

1877. Anon., 'Colonial Experiences, or Incidents of Thirty-four Years in New Zealand,' p. 104:

"Our tea was made from the dried leaves of a native shrub, of a very spicy flavour, and known as the kawakawa, too pungent if used fresh and green."

1896. 'Otago Witness,' June 4, p. 49:

"The tints of kawa, of birch and broadleaf, of rimu and matai are blended together into one dark indivisible green."

Kawau, n. Maori name for a Shag, Phalacrocorax novae-hollandiae, Steph.

1888. W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 145:

[Description given.]

Kea, n. a parrot of New Zealand, Nester notabilis, Gould. For its habits see quotations.

1862. J. Von Haast, 'Exploration of Head Waters of Waitaki, 1862,'-in 'Geology of Westland' (published 1879), p. 36:

"What gave still greater interest to the spot was the presence of a number of large green alpine parrots (Nestor notabilis), the kea of the natives, which visited continually the small grove of beech-trees near our camp."

1880. 'Zoologist' for February, p. 57:

"On the 4th of November last the distinguished surgeon, Mr. John Wood, F.R.S., exhibited before the Pathological Society of London the colon of a sheep, in which the operation known as Colotomy had been performed by a Parrot . . . the species known as the 'Kea' by the Maoris, the 'Mountain Parrot' of the colonists, Nestor notabilis of Gould. Only five species . . . are known, one of which (Nestor productus) has lately become extinct; they only occur in New Zealand and Norfolk Island. They were formerly classed among the Trichoglossinae or brush-tongued parrots . . . more nearly allied to true Psittaci . . . Its ordinary food consists of berries and insects; but since its Alpine haunts have been reached by the tide of civilization, it has acquired a taste for raw flesh, to obtain which it even attacks living animals."

1882. T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 176:

"We have the hoary-headed nestors, amongst which are found the noisy honey-loving kaka, the hardy kea, that famous sheep- killer and flesh-eater, the dread of many an Alpine sheep farmer."

1888. W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 166:

"Nestor notabilis, Gould, Kea-parrot, Mountain-parrot of the Colonists."

1888. 'Antipodean Notes,' p. 74:

"The Kea picks the fat which surrounds the kidneys. . . . Various theories have been started to explain how this parrot has become carnivorous." [Two pages are devoted to the question.]

1889. Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iv. p. 19:

"The kea-parrot. . . . The kea is pretty to look at, having rich red and green plumage, but it is a cruel bird. It is said that it will fasten on the back of a living sheep and peck its way down to the kidney-fat, for which this parrot has a special fancy. No tourist need feel compunction about shooting a kea."

1893. A. R. Wallace, 'Australasia,' vol. i. p. 445:

"Another very interesting group of birds are the large dull colonial parrots of the genus Nestor, called kea or kaka by the natives from their peculiar cries. Their natural food is berries . . . but of late years the kea (Nestor notabilis), a mountain species found only in the South Island, has developed a curious liking for meat, and now attacks living sheep, settling on their backs and tearing away the skin and flesh to get at the kidney fat."

1895. 'Otago Witness,' Dec. 26, p. 3, col. 1:

"There is in the Alpine regions of the South Island a plant popularly called the 'vegetable sheep,' botanically named Raoulia. From the distance of even a few yards it looks like a sheep. It grows in great masses, and consists of a woolly vegetation. A large specimen of this singular plant was exhibited in the Colonial and Indian Exhibition. It is said that the kea was in the habit of tearing it up to get at the grubs which harbour within the mass, and that mistaking dead sheep for vegetable sheep it learned the taste of mutton. A more enterprising generation preferred its mutton rather fresher."

Kelp-fish, n. In New Zealand, also called Butter-fish (q.v.), Coridodax pullus, Forst. In Tasmania, Odax baleatus, Cuv. and Val.; called also Ground Mullet by the fishermen. In Victoria, Chironemus marmoratus, Gunth. Coridodax and Odax belong to the family Labridae or Wrasses, which comprises the Rock-Whitings; Chironemus to the family Cirrhitidae. The name is also given in New Zealand to another fish, the Spotty (q.v.). These fishes are all different from the Californian food- fishes of the same name.

1841. J. Richardson, 'Description of Australian Fishes,' p. 148:

"This fish is known at Port Arthur by the appellation of 'Kelp-fish,' I suppose from its frequenting the thickets of the larger fuci."

Kennedya, n. the scientific name of a genus of perennial leguminous herbs of the bean family-named, in 1804, after Mr. Kennedy, a gardener at Hammersmith, near London. There are seventeen species, all natives of Australia and Tasmania, many of them cultivated for the sake of their showy flowers and berries. Others lie near the ground like a vetch; K. prostrata is called the Coral Pea (q.v.), or Bleeding Heart, or Native Scarlet Runner, or Running Postman. Another species is called Australian Sarsaparilla. See Sarsaparilla.

1885. R. M. Praed, 'The Head Station,' p. 294:

"Taking off his felt hat, he twisted round it a withe of crimson Kennedia, then put it on again."

Kestrel, n. the common English name for a falcon. According to Gould the Australian species is identical with Cerchneis tinnunculus, a European species, but Vigors and Horsfield differentiate it as Tinnunculus cenchroides.

1893. 'The Argus,' March 25, p. 4, col. 5:

"The kestrel's nest we always found in the fluted gums that overhung the creek, the red eggs resting on the red mould of the decaying trunk being almost invisible."

Kia ora, interj. Maori phrase used by English in the North Island of New Zealand, and meaning "Health to you!" A private letter (1896) says—"You will hear any day at a Melbourne bar the first man say Keora ta-u, while the other says Keora tatu, so replacing "Here's to you!" These expressions are corruptions of the Maori, Kia ora taua, "Health to us too!" and Kia ora tatou, "Health to all of us!"

Kie-kie, n. Maori name for a climbing plant, Freycinetia banksii, N.O. Pandanaceae; frequently pronounced ghi-ghi in the North Island of New Zealand, and gay-gie in the South Island.

1854. W. Golder, 'Pigeons' Parliament,' p. 77:

"The trees were . . . covered with a kind of parasite plant, called a keekee, having a thick cabbage-like stock."

1872. A. Domett, 'Ranolf' (Notes), p. 505:

"Kie-kie (parasite). . . . A lofty climber; the bracts and young spikes make a very sweet preserve."

1882. T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 20:

"The unused food . . . of our little camp, together with the empty kie-kie baskets."

[sc. baskets made of kie-kie leaves.]

Kiley, n. aboriginal word in Western Australia for a flat weapon, curved for throwing, made plane on one side and slightly convex on the other. A kind of boomerang.

1839. Nathaniel Ogle, 'The Colony of Western Australia,' p. 57:

"In every part of this great continent they have the koilee, or boomerang . . ."

1846. J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. 1. c. iv. p. 72:

"One of them had a kiley or bomerang."

1872. Mrs. E. Millett, 'An Australian Parsonage; or, The Settler and the Savage in Western Australia,' p. 222:

"The flat curved wooden weapon, called a kylie, which the natives have invented for the purpose of killing several birds out of a flock at one throw, looks not unlike a bird itself as it whizzes (or walks as natives say) through the air in its circular and ascending flight. . ."

1885 Lady Barker, 'Letters to Guy,' p. 177:

"More wonderful and interesting, however, is it to see them throw the kylie (what is called the boomerang in other parts of Australia), a curiously curved and flat stick, about a foot long and two or three inches wide. . . . There are heavier 'ground kylies,' which skim along the ground, describing marvellous turns and twists, and they would certainly break the leg of any bird or beast they hit; but their gyrations are nothing compared to those of a good air-kylie in skilful hands."

Kinaki, n. a Maori word for food eaten with another kind to give it a relish. Compare Grk. 'opson.

1820. 'Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand' (Church Missionary Society), p. 164:

"Kinaki. Victuals, added for variety's sake."

1873. 'Appendix to Journal of House of Representatives,' vol. iii. G. 1, p. 5:

"If it be a Maori who is taken by me, he will also be made into a kinaki for my cabbage."

1878. R. C. Barstow, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' vol. XI. art. iv. p. 71:

"Fifty years ago it would have been a poor hapu that could not afford a slave or two as a kinaki, or relish, on such an occasion."

King-fish, n. In New Zealand a sea-fish, Seriola lalandii (Maori, Haku), sometimes called the Yellow-tail; in Victoria, Sciaena antarctica, Castln. Called Jew-fish (q.v.) in New South Wales. Tenison Woods says the King-fish of Port Jackson must not be confounded with the King-fish of Victoria or the King-fish of Tasmania (Thyrsites micropus, McCoy). The Port Jackson King-fish belongs to a genus called "Yellow-tails" in Europe. This is Seriola lalandii, Cuv. and Val. Seriola belongs to the family Carangidae, or Horse- Mackerels. Thyrsites belongs to the family Trichiuridae. The "Barracouta" of Australasia is another species of Thyrsites, and the "Frost-fish" belongs to the same family. The Kingfish of America is a different fish; the name is also applied to other fishes in Europe.

1876. P. Thomson, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' vol. XI. art. lii. p. 381:

"The king-fish, Seriola Lalandii, put in no appearance this year."

1883. 'Royal Commission on Fisheries of Tasmania,' p. 11:

"Thyrsites Lalandii, the king-fish of Tasmania: migratory. Appear in immense numbers at certain seasons (December to June) in pursuit of the horse-mackerel. Caught with a swivelled barbless hook at night. Voracious in the extreme—individuals frequently attacking each other, and also the allied species, the barracouta."

Kingfisher, n. common English bird-name. Gould mentions thirteen species in Australia. The Australian species are—

Blue Kingfisher— Halcyon azurea, Lath.

Fawn-breasted K.— Dacelo cervina, Gould.

Forest K.— Halcyon macleayi, Jard. and Selb.

Laughing jackass (q.v.)— Dacelo gigas, Bodd.

Leach's K.— D. leachii, Vig. and Hors.

Little K.— Halcyon pusilla, Temm.

Mangrove K.— H. sordidus, Gould.

Purple K.— H. pulchra, Gould.

Red-backed K.— H. pyrropygius, Gould.

Sacred K.— H. sanctus, Vig. and Hors.

White-tailed K.— Tanysiptera sylvia, Gould.

Yellow-billed K.— Syma flavirostris, Gould.

There is a Kingfisher in New Zealand (Halcyon vagans, Less.) considered identical by many with H. sanctus of Australia, but concluded by Butler to be a distinct species.

1888. W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 121:

[A full description.]

King of the Herrings, n. another name for the Elephant-fish (q.v.).

1890. A. H. S. Lucas, 'Handbook of the Australasian Association' (Melbourne), p. 72:

"The King of the Herrings, Callorhynchus antarcticus, is fairly common with us."

King-Parrot. See Parrot.

1865. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'History of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. p. 317:

This creek [King Parrot Creek] was named after a beautiful parrot which was then seen for the first time. It is a bird of magnificent plumage, with crimson feathers on the body, and blue wings, both of gorgeous hue, and no other colour except a little black. The name, King Parrot, is variously applied to several birds in different arts of Australia; the one described is common."

King William Pine, n. a Tasmanian tree. See Cedar.

Kino, n. a drug; the dried juice, of astringent character, obtained from incisions in the bark of various trees. In Australia it is got from certain Eucalypts, e.g. E. resinifera, Smith, and E. corymbosa, Smith. "It is used in England under the name of Red-gum in astringent lozenges for sore throat." ('Century.') See Red Gum. The drug is Australian, but the word, according to Littre, is "Mot des Indes orientales."

Kipper, n. a youth who has been initiated, i.e. been through the Bora (q.v.). It is a Queensland word. In Kabi, Queensland, the form is kivar: on the Brisbane River, it is kippa, whereas in the Kamilaroi of New South Wales the word is kubura.

1853. H. Berkeley Jones, 'Adventures in Australia in 1852 and 1853,' p. 126:

"Around us sat 'Kippers,' i.e. 'hobbledehoy blacks.'"

1885. R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 24:

"The young men receive the rank of warriors, and are henceforth called kippers."

Kit, n. a flexible Maori basket; not the English kit used by soldiers, but the Maori word kete, a basket.

1855. Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 199:

"Kete (Maori), pa-kete (Anglo-Maori), basket, kit (Eng.)."

1856. E. B. Fitton, 'New Zealand,' p. 68:

"The natives generally bring their produce to market in neatly made baskets, plaited from flax and known by the name of 'Maori kits.'"

1857. C. Hursthouse, 'New Zealand, the Britain of the South,' vol. i. p. 180:

"The kit is a large plaited green-flax basket."

1877. An Old Colonist, 'Colonial Experiences,' p. 31:

"Potatoes were procurable from the Maoris in flax kits, at from one to five shillings the kit."

1884. Lady Martin, 'Our Maoris,' p. 44:

"They might have said, as an old Maori woman long afterwards said to me, 'Mother, my heart is like an old kete (i.e. a coarsely-woven basket). The words go in, but they fall through.'"

Kite, n. common English bird-name. The species in Australia are—

Allied Kite— Milvus affanis, Gould.

Black-shouldered K.— Elanus axillaris, Lath.

Letter-winged K.— E. scriptus, Gould.

Square-tailed K.— Lophoictinia isura, Gould.

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 321:

"We had to guard it by turns, whip in hand, from a host of square-tailed kites (Milvus isiurus)."

1895. G. A. Keartland, 'Horne Expedition in Central Australia,' Zoology, p. 55:

"At any stockyard or station passed Kites were seen . . . at Henbury one female bird was bold enough to come right into camp and pick up the flesh thrown to it from birds I was skinning."

Kiwi, n. Maori name for a wingless struthious bird of New Zealand, the Apteryx (q.v.), so called from the note of the bird. The species are—

Large Grey Kiwi (Roa roa, generally shortened to Roa, q.v.)— Apteryx haastii, Potts.

Little Grey K.— A. oweni, Gould.

North Island K.— A. bulleri, Sharpe.

South Island K. (Tokoeka)— A. australis, Shaw and Nodder.

See Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand' (1888), vol. ii. p. 308.

1835. W. Yate, 'Account of New Zealand,' p. 58:

"Kiwi—the most remarkable and curious bird in New Zealand."

1848. J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. vi. pl. 2:

"Apteryx Australis, Shaw, Kiwi kiwi."

[Australis here equals Southern, not Australian.]

1867. F. Hochstetter, 'New Zealand,' p. 181:

"The Kiwi, however, is only the last and rather insignificant representative of the family of wingless birds that inhabited New Zealand in bygone ages."

1872. A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 232:

"'Twas nothing but that wing-less, tail-less bird, The kiwi."

1882. T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 35:

"The fact that one collector alone had killed and disposed of above 2000 specimens of the harmless kiwi."

1889. Professor Parker, 'Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,' p. 116:

"The Kiwi, although flightless, has a small but well-formed wing, provided with wing quills."

Knockabout, adj. a species of labourer employed on a station; applied to a man of all work on a station. Like Rouseabout (q.v.).

1876. W. Harcus, 'Southern Australia,' p. 275:

"Knockabout hands, 17s. to 20S. per week."

1881. A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 80:

"They were composed chiefly of what is called in the bush 'knockabout men'—that is, men who are willing to undertake any work, sometimes shepherding, sometimes making yards or driving."

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' xvi. p. 118:

"I watched his development through various stages of colonial experience—into dairyman, knockabout man, bullock-driver, and finally stock-rider."

Knock-down, v. generally of a cheque. To spend riotously, usually in drink.

1869. Marcus Clarke, 'Peripatetic Philosopher' (reprint), p. 80:

"Last night! went knocking round with Swizzleford and Rattlebrain. C'sino, and V'ri'tes. Such a lark! Stole two Red Boots and a Brass Hat. Knocked down thirteen notes, and went to bed as tight as a fly!"

1871. J. J. Simpson, 'Recitations,' p. 9:

"Hundreds of diggers daily then were walking Melbourne town, With their pockets fill'd with gold, which they very soon knock'd down."

1882. A. J. Boyd, 'Old Colonials,' p. 6:

"Cashed by the nearest publican, who of course never handed over a cent. A man was compelled to stay there and knock his cheque down 'like a man'"

1885. H. Finch-Hatton,' Advance Australia,' p. 222:

"A system known as 'knocking down one's cheque' prevails all over the unsettled parts of Australia. That is to say, a man with a cheque, or a sum of money in his possession, hands it over to the publican, and calls for drinks for himself and his friends, until the publican tells him he has drunk out his cheque."

1887. R. M. Praed, 'Longleat of Kooralbyn,' c. xviii. p. 182:

"The illiterate shearer who knocks down his cheque in a spree."

Koala, Coola, or Kool-la, n. aboriginal name for Native Bear (q.v.); genus, Phascolarctus (q.v.). A variant of an aboriginal word meaning a big animal. In parts of South Australia koola means a kangaroo.

1813. 'History of New South Wales' (1818), p. 432:

"The koolah or sloth is likewise an animal of the opossum species, with a false belly. This creature is from a foot and a half to two feet in length, and takes refuge in a tree, where he discovers his haunt by devouring all the leaves before he quits it."

1849. J. Gould, 'Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London,' November:

"The light-coloured mark on the rump, somewhat resembling that on the same part of the Koala . . . the fur is remarkable for its extreme density and for its resemblance to that of the Koala."

Kohekohe, n. Maori name for a New Zealand tree, sometimes called Cedar, Dysoxylum spectabile, Hook (N.O. Meliaceae).

1883. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 127:

"Kohekohe. A large forest tree, forty to fifty feet high. Its leaves are bitter, and used to make a stomachic infusion: wood tough, but splits freely."

Kohua, n. Maori word, for (1) a Maori oven; (2) a boiler. There is a Maori verb Kohu, to cook or steam in a native oven (from a noun Kohu, steam, mist), and an adj. Kohu, concave. The word is used by the English in New Zealand, and is said to be the origin of Goashore (q.v.).

Kokako, n. Maori name for the Blue-wattled Crow. See under Crow and Wattle-bird.

1882. T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 194:

"The Orange-wattled Crow, or wattled bird, kokako of the Maoris, Glaucopis cinerea, Gml., still seems to be an almost unknown bird as to its nesting habits. . . . The kokako loving a moist temperature will probably soon forsake its ancient places of resort."

Kokopu, n. Maori name for a New Zealand fish; any species of Galaxias, especially G. fasciatus; corrupted into Cock-a-bully (q.v.). See Mountain Trout.

1820. 'Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand' (Church Missionary Society), p. 106:

"Kokopu. Name of a certain fish."

1886. R. A. Sherrin, 'Fishes of New Zealand,' p. 138:

"'Kokopu,' Dr.Hector says, 'is the general Maori name for several very common fishes in the New Zealand streams and lakes, belonging to the family of Galaxidae.'"

Kokowai, n. Maori name for Red Ochre, an oxide of iron deposited in certain rivers, used by the Maoris for painting. It was usually mixed with shark oil, but for very fine work with oil from the berries of the titoki (q.v.).

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 124:

"His head, with the hair neatly arranged and copiously ornamented with feathers, reclined against a carved post, which was painted with kokowai, or red ochre."

1878. R. C. Barstow, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' vol. XI. art. iv. p. 75:

"Kokowai is a kind of pigment, burnt, dried, and mixed with shark-liver oil."

Konini, n. Maori name for (1) the fruit of the New Zealand fuchsia, Fuchsia excorticata, Linn.

(2) A settlers' name for the tree itself. See Kotukutuku.

1882. T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 114:

"The berries of the konini . . . ripening early furnish some part of its (bell-bird's) food supply."

(p. 146): "Rather late in August, when the brown-skinned konini begins to deck its bare sprays with pendulous flowers."

1889. T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 53:

"Mr. Colenso informs me that it [Fuchsia excorticata] is the Kohutuhutu and the Kotukutuku of the Maoris, the fruit being known as Konini, especially in the South Island and the southern part of the North Island. The settlers sometimes term it Kotukutuku or Konini, but more generally fuchsia."

Kooberry, n. aboriginal name for the Bidyan Ruffe (q.v.).

Kookaburra, n. (also Gogobera and Goburra), the aboriginal name for the bird called the Laughing Jackass (q.v.). The first spelling is that under which the aboriginal name now survives in English, and is the name by which the bird is generally called in Sydney.

1862. H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 123:

"And wild goburras laughed aloud Their merry morning songs."

1870. F. S. Wilson, 'Australian Songs,' p. 167:

"The rude rough rhymes of the wild goburra's song."

1886. E. M. Curr, 'Australian Race,' p. 29:

"The notes of this bird are chiefly composed of the sounds ka and koo, and from them it takes its name in most of the languages . . . It is noticeable in some localities that burra is the common equivalent of people or tribe, and that the Pegulloburra . . . the Owanburra, and many other tribes, called the laughing- jackass—kakooburra, kakaburra, kakoburra, and so on; literally the Kakoo people." [Mr. Curr's etymology is not generally accepted.]

1890. 'The Argus,' Oct. 25, p. 4, col 5:

"You might hear the last hoot of the kookaburra then."

1893. 'Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 26, p. 5, col. 4:

"But what board will intervene to protect the disappearing marsupials, and native flora, the lyre-bird, the kookaburra, and other types which are rapidly disappearing despite the laws which have been framed in some instances for their protection?"

1894. E. P. Ramsay, 'Catalogue of Australian Birds in the Australian Museum at Sydney,' p. 2, s.v. Dacelo:

"Gogobera, aborigines of New South Wales."

Koradji, or Coradgee, n. aboriginal name for a wise man, sorcerer, or doctor. In the south-east of New South Wales, it means one of the tribal wizards, usually called "blackfellow- doctors."

1845. J. O. Balfour, 'Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 14:

"The coradgees, who are their wise men, have, they suppose, the power of healing and foretelling. Each tribe possesses one of these learned pundits, and if their wisdom were in proportion to their age, they would indeed be Solons."

1865. S. Bennett, 'Australian Discovery,' p. 250:

"Kiradjee, a doctor; Grk. cheirourgos. Persian, khoajih. English, surgeon. Old English (obsolete), chirurgeon."

[Curious and impossible etymology.]

1865. W. Howitt, 'Discovery in Australia, vol. i. p. 287:

"One who seemed a coradge, or priest, went through a strange ceremony of singing, and touching his eyebrows, nose, and breast, crossing himself, and pointing to the sky like an old Druid."

1885. R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 23:

"The korradgees, or medicine men, are the chief repositories (of the secrets of their religion)."

1892. J. Fraser, 'Aborigines of New South Wales,' p. 63:

"For some diseases, the kar'aji, or native doctor when he is called in, makes passes with his hand over the sick man, much in the same way as a mesmerist will do . . . Our Australian karaji is highly esteemed, but not paid."

Korari, n. often pronounced Koladdy and Koladdy, and spelt variously; the Maori word for the flowering stem of Phormium tenax, J. and G. Forst. (q.v.), generally used for making a mokihi (q.v.). There is a Maori noun, kora, a small fragment; and a verb korari, to pluck a twig, or tear it off.

1879. 'Old Identity' [Title]:

"The Old Identities of the Province of Otago."

[p. 53]: "A kolladie (the flower stalk of the flax, about seven feet long) carried by each, as a balancing pole or staff."

1893. Daniel Frobisher, 'Sketches of Gossipton,' p. 75:

"But now the faithful brute is gone; Through bush and fern and flax koladdy, Where oft he bunny pounced upon, No more will follow me, poor Paddy."

Korero, n. Maori for a conference, a conversation. The verb means "to tell, to say, to address, to speak, to talk." ('Williams' Maori Dictionary,' 4th. ed.)

1820. 'Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand' (Church Missionary Society), p. 168:

"Korero, s. a speaking; v. n. speaking."

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' c. i. p. 78:

"There were about sixty men assembled, and they proceeded to hold a 'korero,' or talk on the all-important subject."

Ibid. p. 81:

"With the exception of an occasional exclamation of 'korero, korero,' 'speak, speak,' which was used like our 'hear, hear,' in either an encouraging or an ironical sense, or an earnest but low expression of approval or dissent, no interruption of the orators ever took place."

1863. T. Moser, 'Mahoe Leaves,' p. 30:

"As he had to pass several pahs on the road, at all of which there would be 'koreros.'"

(p. 31): "Had been joined by a score or more of their acquaintances, and what between 'koreros' and 'ko-mitis,' had not made any further progress on their journey."

1896. 'Otago Witness,' Jan. 23, p. 42, col. 3:

"All this after a very excited 'korero' on the empty dray, with the surging and exciting crowd around."

Korimako, n. Maori name for the Bell-Bird (q.v.).

1855. Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 402:

"The korimako, or kokorimako (Anthornis melanura). This bird is the sweetest songster of New Zealand, but is not distinguished by its plumage, which is a yellowish olive with a dark bluish shade on each side of the head."

Ibid. p. 75:

"In the first oven [at the Maori child's naming feast] a korimako was cooked; this is the sweetest singing bird of New Zealand; it was eaten that the child might have a sweet voice and be an admired orator."

1872. A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 202:

"The korimako, sweetest bird Of all that are in forest heard."

1888. W. W. Smith, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' vol. XXI. art. xxi. p. 213:

"Anthornis melanura, korimako or bell-bird. In fine weather the bush along the south shores of Lake Brunner re-echoes with the rich notes of the tui and korimako, although both species have disappeared from former haunts east of the Alps."

Koromiko, n. a white flowering arborescent Veronica of New Zealand, Veronica salicifolia, Forst., N.O. Scrophularineae.

1855. Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' P. 454:

"Koromiko, a very ornamental plant, but disappearing before the horse. It bears a tapering-shaped flower of a purplish white."

1872. A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 2:

"Just a ditch, With flowering koromiko rich."

1884. T. Bracken, 'Lays of Maori,' p. 21:

"The early breeze That played among the koromiko's leaves."

1889. Vincent Pyke, 'Wild Will Enderby,' p. 16:

"Fostered by the cool waters of a mountain rivulet, the koromiko grows by the side of the poisonous tutu bushes."

Korora, n. Maori name for a Blue Penguin, Spheniscus minor, Gmel. See Penguin.

Korrumburra, n. aboriginal name for the common blow-fly, which in Australia is a yellow-bottle, not a blue-bottle.

1896. 'The Melburnian,' Aug. 28, p. 54:

"Odd 'Korrumburras' dodge quickly about with cheerful hum. Where they go, these busy buzzy flies, when the cold calls them away for their winter vac. is a mystery. Can they hibernate? for they show themselves again at the first glint of the spring sun."

Kotuku, n. Maori name for the White Crane of the Colonists, which is really a White Heron (Ardea egretta). See Crane.

1888. W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 124:

[A full description.]

Kotukutuku, n. Maori name for the New Zealand tree, Fuchsia excorticata, Linn., N.O. Onagrariea; written also Kohutuhutu. This name is not much used, but is corrupted into Tookytook (q.v.). See Konini and Fuchsia.

1883. J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 127:

"Kotukutuku. The fruit is called konini. A small and ornamental tree, ten to thirty feet high . . . a durable timber. . . . The wood might be used as dye-stuff . . . Its fruit is pleasant and forms principal food of the wood-pigeon."

Kowhai, n. Maori name given to—

(1) Locust-tree, Yellow Kowhai (Sophora tetraptera, Aiton, N.O. Leguminosae).

(2) Parrot-bill, Scarlet Kowhai (Clianthus puniceus, N.O. Leguminosae), or Kaka-bill (q.v.).

Variously spelt Kowai and Kohai, and corrupted into Goai (q.v.) by the settlers.

1845. E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 58:

"The kohai too, a species of mimosa covered with bright yellow blossoms, abounds in such situations where the stunted growth is an almost unvarying sign of constant inundation."

[Mr. Wakefield was mistaken. The Kohai is not a mimosa.]

1872. A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 261:

"'Tis the Kowhai, that spendthrift so golden But its kinsman to Nature beholden, For raiment its beauty to fold in, Deep-dyed as of trogon or lory, How with parrot-bill fringes 'tis burning, One blood-red mound of glory!"

1873. 'New Zealand Parliamentary Debates,' No. 16, p. 863:

"Kowai timber, thoroughly seasoned, used for fencing posts, would stand for twelve or fourteen years; while posts cut out of the same bush and used green would not last half the time."

1882. T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 146:

"The head of the straight-stemmed kowhai is already crowned with racemes of golden blossoms."

1883. J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand, p. 131:

"Kowhai—a small or middling-sized tree. . . . Wood red, valuable for fencing, being highly durable . . . used for piles in bridges, wharves, etc."

1884. T. Bracken, 'Lays of Maori,' p. 21:

"The dazzling points of morning's lances Waked the red kowhai's drops from sleep."

Kuku, or Kukupa, n. Maori name for the New Zealand Fruit-pigeon (q.v.), Carpophaga novae-zelandiae, Gmel. Called also Kereru. The name is the bird's note.

1820. 'Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand' (Church Missionary Society), p. 170:

"Kuku, s. the cry of a pigeon."

1855. Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 406:

"Family Columbidae—kereru, kukupa (kuku, Carpophaga Novae Zealandiae), the wood-pigeon. This is a very fine large bird, the size of a duck; the upper part of the breast green and gold, the lower a pure white, legs and bill red. It is a heavy flying bird, and very stupid, which makes it an easy prey to its enemies. The natives preserve large quantities in calabashes, taking out the bones; these are called kuku."

Ibid. p. 183:

"The pigeon bears two names—the kuku and kukupa, which are common to the isles."

1881. J. L. Campbell, 'Poenamo,' p. 115:

"The kukupa . . . was just the bird created expressly for the true cockney sportsman—the one after his heart . . . for if not brought down by the first shot, why he only shakes his feathers and calmly waits to be shot at again!"

1883. F. S. Renwick, 'Betrayed,' p. 45:

"The kuku, plaintive, wakes to mourn her mate."

Kumara, or Kumera, n. (pronounced Koomera), a Maori word for an edible root, the yam or sweet potato, Ipomaea batatas, N.O. Convolvulaceae. There are numerous varieties. It should be added that it is doubtful whether it grows wild in New Zealand.

1773. Sydney Parkinson, 'Journal of a Voyage to the South Seas' (see extract in 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' 'Manibus Parkinsonibus Sacrum,' W. Colenso, vol. x. art. ix. p. 124):

"Several canoes came alongside of the ship, of whom we got some fish, kumeras or sweet potatoes, and several other things."

1828. 'Henry William Diarys' (in Life by Carleton), p. 69:

"Kumara had been planted over the whole plain."

1830. Ibid. p. 79:

"We passed over the hill, and found the assailants feasting on the kumara, or sweet potato, which they just pulled up from the garden at which they had landed."

1851. Mrs. Wilson, 'New Zealand,' p. 49:

"He saw some fine peaches and kumaras or sweet potatoes."

1852. G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes,' c. xi. p. 273 (3rd edition, 1855)

"The kumara or sweet potato is a most useful root."

1863. F. E. Maning (Pakeha Maori), 'Old New Zealand,' p. 51:

"Behind the pigs was placed by the active exertion of two or three hundred people, a heap of potatoes and kumera, in quantity about ten tons, so there was no lack of the raw material for a feast."

1872. A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 430:

"Now the autumn's fruits Karaka,—taro,—kumera,—berries, roots Had all been harvested with merry lays And rites of solemn gladness."

1884. T. Bracken, 'Lays of Maori,' p. 18:

"Some more dainty toothsome dish Than the kumera and fish."

Kumquat, Native, n. an Australian tree, Atalantia glauca, Hook., N.O. Rutaceae, i.q. Desert Lemon (q.v.).

Kurdaitcha, Coordaitcha, or Goditcha, n. a native term applied by white men to a particular kind of shoe worn by the aborigines of certain parts of Central Australia, and made of emu feathers matted together. The two ends are of the same shape, so that the direction in which the wearer has travelled cannot be detected. The wearer is supposed to be intent upon murder, and the blacks really apply the name to the wearer himself. The name seems to have been transferred by white men to the shoes, the native name for which is interlin~a, or urtathurta.

1886. E. M. Curr, 'Australian Race,' vol. i. p. 148:

"It was discovered in 1882 . . . that the Blacks . . . wear a sort of shoe when they attack their enemies by stealth at night. Some of the tribes call these shoes Kooditcha, their name for an invisible spirit. I have seen a pair of them. The soles were made of the feathers of the emu, stuck together with a little human blood, which the maker is said to take from his arm. They were about an inch and a half thick, soft, and of even breadth. The uppers were nets made of human hair. The object of these shoes is to prevent those who wear them from being tracked and pursued after a night attack."

1896. P. M. Byrne, 'Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria,' p. 66:

"The wearing of the Urtathurta and going Kurdaitcha luma appears to have been the medium for a form of vendetta."

Kurrajong, n. or Currajong (spelt variously), the aboriginal name for various Australian and Tasmanian fibrous plants; see quotations, 1825 and 1884. They are the—

Black Kurrajong— Sterculia diversifolia, G. Don., and Sterculia quadrifida, R. Br., N.O. Sterculiaceae.

Brown K.— Commersonia echinata, R. and G. Forst.; also, Brachychiton gregorii; both belonging to N.O. Sterculiaceae.

Green K.— Hibiscus heterophyllus, Vent., N.O. Malvaceae.

Tasmanian K.— Plagianthus sidoides, Hook., N.O. Malvaceae.

Others are Trema aspera, Blume, N.O. Urticeae; and Sterculia rupestris, Benth., N.O. Urticeae. Some of the varieties are also called Bottle-trees, and, in Tasmania, Cordage-trees (q.v.).

1823. 'Uniacke's Narrative of Oxley's Expedition,' quoted by J. D. Lang, 'Cooksland,' p. 408:

"The nets used for fishing [by the natives] are made by the men from the bark of the kurrajong (Hibiscus heterophyllus), a shrub which is very common to the swamps."

1825. Barron Field, Glossary, in 'Geographical Memoirs of New South Wales,' p. 502:

"Currijong or Natives' cordage tree (Hibiscus heterophyllus)."

1832. J. Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' vol. ii. p. 25:

"The curragong is sometimes found; its inner bark may be manufactured into ropes."

1846. C. P. Hodgson, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 149:

"The currajong (Sterculia)is used for cordage, and makes strong, close, but not very durable ropes."

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' vol. iii. p. 91:

"Dillis neatly worked of koorajong bark."

1849. J. P. Townsend, 'Rambles in New South Wales,' p. 214:

"In such a valley in which stands a spreading corrijong (Sterculia diversifolia), which has a strong resemblance to the English oak, I constantly found a flock of sheep."

1862. W. Archer, 'Products of Tasmania,' p. 41:

"Currajong (Plagianthus sidoides, Hook). The fibres of the bark are very strong. It is a large shrub, found chiefly on the southern side of the Island, in various and shady places, and grows rapidly."

1878. Rev. W. W. Spicer, 'Handbook of the Plants of Tasmania,' p. 104:

"Plagianthus sidoides, Hooker. Currijong, N.O. Malvaceae. Peculiar to Tasmania."

1883. G. W. Rusden, 'History of Australia,' vol. i. p. 77:

"The currejong of the forest, and the casuarina which lines the rivers, stand with brighter green in cheering contrast to the dulness of surrounding leaves."

1881,. W. R. Guilfoyle, 'Australian Botany' (second edition), p. 162:

"The aborigines apply the name Kurrajong, or Currijong, to some [Pimeleas]; but it would appear that this native name is indiscriminately given to any plant possessing a tough bark."

1888. Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iii. p. 138:

"Quaint currajongs . . . very like in form to the stiff wooden trees we have all played with in childish days."


Laburnum, Native, n. the Tasmanian Clover-tree, Goodenia lotifolia, Sal., N.O. Leguminosae.

Laburnum, Sea-coast, n. also called Golden Chain, Sophora tomentosa, Linn., N.O. Leguminosae; a tall, hoary shrub.

Lace-bark, Lacey-bark, or Lacewood, n. names for Ribbonwood (q.v.). The inner bark of the tree is like fine lace.

1876. W. N. Blair, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' vol. IX. art. x. p. 175:

"Ribbonwood, Plagianthus betulinus, botanical name, Hooker; Whauwhi, Maori name, according to Hector; lace-bark tree, settlers' name, according to Buchanan."

1882. T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open':

"The soft, bright-foliaged ribbonwood (lace-bark, Plagianthus) contrasts with the dusky hue of the dark-leaved fagus."

Lace-Lizard, n. Hydrosaurus (Varanus) varius. See Goanna.

1881. F. McCoy, 'Prodomus of the Natural History of Victoria,' Dec. 4:

"Although the present Lace Lizard is generally arboreal, climbing the forest trees with ease, and running well on the ground, it can swim nearly as well as a Crocodile."

Lagorchestes, n. the scientific name for a genus of Australian marsupial mammals, called the Hare- Wallabies or Hare-Kangaroos (q.v.). (Grk. lagows, a hare, and 'orchestaes, a dancer.) They live on plains, and make a "form" in the herbage like the hare, which they resemble.

Lagostrophus, n. the scientific name of the genus containing the animal called the Banded-Wallaby. (Grk. lagows, a hare, and strophos, a band or zone.) Its colour is a greyish-brown, with black and white bands, its distinguishing characteristic. It is sometimes called the Banded-Kangaroo, and is found at Dirk Hartog's Island, and on one or two islands in Shark's Bay, and in West Australia. For its interesting habits see R. Lyddeker's 'Marsupialia.'

Lake-Trout, n. a Tasmanian fish, Galaxias auratus, family Galaxidae. See Mountain- Trout.

Lamb down, v. tr.

(1) To knock down a cheque or a sum of money in a spree. There is an old English verb, of Scandinavian origin, and properly spelt lamm, which means to thrash, beat.

1873. J. B. Stephens, 'Black Gin,' p. 51:

"It is the Bushman come to town— Come to spend his cheque in town, Come to do his lambing down."

1890. 'The Argus,' June 7, p. 4, col. 2:

"The lambing down of cheques."

1890. Ibid. Aug. 9, p. 4, col. 5:

"The old woman thought that we were on gold, and would lamb down at the finish in her shanty."

(2) To make a man get rid of his money to you; to clean him out."

1873. Marcus Clarke, 'Holiday Peak, etc.,' p. 21:

"The result was always the same—a shilling a nobbler. True, that Trowbridge's did not 'lamb down' so well as the Three Posts, but then the Three Posts put fig tobacco in its brandy casks, and Trowbridge's did not do that."

1880. Garnet Walch, 'Victoria in 1880,' p.30:

"The operation—combining equal parts of hocussing, overcharging, and direct robbery—and facetiously christened by bush landlords 'lambing down.'"

1890. 'The Argus,' Aug. 16, p. 4, col. 7:

"One used to serve drinks in the bar, the other kept the billiard-table. Between them they lambed down more shearers and drovers than all the rest on the river."

Lamprey, n. The Australian Lampreys are species of the genera Mordacia and Geotria, of the same family as the "Lampreys" of the Northern Hemisphere.

Lancelet, n. The fishes of this name present in Australasia are—

In Queensland, Epigonichthys cultellus, Peters, family Amplingae; in Victoria and New South Wales, species of Heteropleuron.

Lancewood, n. There are many lancewoods in various parts of the world. The name, in Australia, is given to Backhousia myrtifolia, Hook. and Harv., N.O. Myrtaceae; and in New Zealand, to Panax crassifolium, Dec. and Plan., N.O. Araliaceae, known as Ivy- tree, and by the Maori name of Horoeka (q.v.).

Landsborough Grass, n. a valuable Queensland fodder grass of a reddish colour, Anthistiria membranacea, Lindl., N.O. Gramineae. See Grass.

Lantern, Ballarat, n. a local term. See quotation.

1875. Wood and Lapham, 'Waiting for the Mail,' p. 21:

"I may explain that a 'Ballarat Lantern' is formed by knocking off the bottom of a bottle, and putting a candle in the neck."

Lark, n. common English bird name. The Australian species are—

Brown Song Lark— Cincloramphus cruralis, Vig. and Hors.

Bush L.— Mirafra horsfieldii, Gould.

Field L.— Calamanthus campestris, Gould.

Ground L.— Anthus australis, Vig. and Hors. (Australian Pipit), A. novae-zelandae, Gray (New Zealand Pipit).

Lesser Bush L.— Mirafra secunda, Sharpe.

Little Field L.— Cathonicola sagittata, Lath.

Magpie L.— Grallina picata, Lath.; see Magpie-Lark.

Rufous Song L.— Cincloramphus rufescens, Vig. and Hors.

Striated Field L.— Calamanthus fuliginosus, Vig. and Hors.

See Ground-Lark, Sand-Lark, Pipit, and Magpie-Lark.

Larrikin, n. The word has various shades of meaning between a playful youngster and a blackguardly rough. Little streetboys are often in a kindly way called little larrikins. (See quotations, 1870 and 1885.) Archibald Forbes described the larrikin as "a cross between the Street Arab and the Hoodlum, with a dash of the Rough thrown in to improve the mixture." ('Century.) The most exalted position yet reached in literature by this word is in Sir Richard Burton's 'Translation of the Arabian Nights' (1886-7), vol. i. p. 4, Story of the Larrikin and the Cook; vol. iv. p. 281, Tale of First Larrikin. The previous translator, Jonathan Scott, had rendered the Arabic word, Sharper.

There are three views as to the origin of the word, viz.—

(1) That it is a phonetic spelling of the broad Irish pronunciation, with a trilled r of the word larking. The story goes that a certain Sergeant Dalton, about the year 1869, charged a youthful prisoner at the Melbourne Police Court with being "a-larrr-akin' about the streets." The Police Magistrate, Mr. Sturt, did not quite catch the word—"A what, Sergeant?"—"A larrikin', your Worchup." The police court reporter used the word the next day in the paper, and it stuck. (See quotation, 'Argus,' 1896.)

This story is believed by 99 persons out of 100; unfortunately it lacks confirmation; for the record of the incident cannot be discovered, after long search in files by many people. Mr. Skeat's warning must be remembered—"As a rule, derivations which require a story to be told turn out to be false."

(2) That the word is thieves' English, promoted like swag, plant, lift, etc., into ordinary Australian English. Warders testify that for a number of years before the word appeared in print, it was used among criminals in gaol as two separate words, viz.—leary ('cute, fly, knowing), and kinchen (youngster),—'leary kinchen ,'—shortened commonly into 'leary kin' and 'leary kid.' Australian warders and constables are Irish, almost to a man. Their pronunciation of 'leary kin' would be very nearly 'lairy kin,' which becomes the single word larrikin. (See quotation, 1871.) It is possible that Sergeant Dalton used this expression and was misunderstood by the reporter.

(3) The word has been derived from the French larron (a thief), which is from the Latin latronem (a robber). This became in English larry, to which the English diminutive, kin, was added; although this etymology is always derided in Melbourne.

1870. 'The Daily Telegraph' (Melbourne), Feb. 7, p. 2, col. 3:

"We shall perhaps begin to think of it in earnest, when we have insisted upon having wholesome and properly baked bread, or a better supply of fish, and when we have put down the 'roughs' and 'larrikins.'"

1870. 'The Age,' Feb. 8, p. 3, col. 1:

"In sentencing a gang of 'larrikins' who had been the terror of Little Bourke-street and its neighbourhood for several hours on Saturday night, Mr. Call remarked. . ."

1870. 'The Herald,' April 4, p.3, col. 2:

". . . three larikins who had behaved in a very disorderly manner in Little Latrobe-street, having broken the door of a house and threatened to knock out the eye of one of the inmates."

1870. Marcus Clarke, 'Goody Two Shoes,' p. 26:

"He's a lively little larrikin lad, and his name is Little Boy Blue."

1871. 'The Argus,' Sept. 19, p.5, col. 4:

"In San Francisco, the vagabond juveniles who steal, smash windows, and make themselves generally obnoxious to the respectable inhabitants, instead of being termed 'larrikins,' as in Victoria, are denominated 'hoodleums.' The name is more musical than the one in vogue here, and probably equally as descriptive, as its origin appears to be just as obscure as that of the word 'larrikin.' This word, before it got into print, was confined to the Irish policemen, who generally pronounced it 'lerrikan,' and it has been suggested that the term is of Hibernian origin, and should be spelt lerrichaun.'"

1871. Sir George Stephen, Q.C., 'Larrikinism,' a Lecture reported in 'Prahran Telegraph,' Sept. 23, p. 3, col. 1:

What is Larrikinism? It is a modern word of which I can only guess the derivation, . . . nor can I find any among the erudite professors of slang who adorn our modern literature who can assist me. Some give our police the credit of coining it from the 'larking' of our school boys, but I am inclined to think that the word is of Greek origin—Laros, a cormorant—though immediately derived from the French 'larron' which signifies a thief or rogue. If I am right, then larrikin is the natural diminutive form in English phraseology for a small or juvenile thief. . . . This however is, I must acknowledge, too severe a construction of the term, even if the derivation is correct; for I was myself, I frankly confess it, an unquestionable larrikin between 60 and 70 years ago. . . . Larrikinism is not thieving, though a road that often leads to it. . . . Is it a love of mischief for mischief's sake? This is the theory of the papers, and is certainly a nearer approach to the true solution."

1871. 'Figaro,' in 'Prahran Telegraph,' Sept. 30, p. 7, col. 3:

"A local contemporary has . . . done his 'level best' to help me out of my 'difficulty' with respect to the word Larrikin. He suggests that lerrichan should read leprichaun , a mischievous sprite, according to Irish tradition. . . . We think we may with more safety and less difficulty trace the word to the stereotype [sic] reply of the police to the magisterial question—'What was he doing when you apprehended him?' 'Oh! larriking (larking) about, yer Wurtchip.'"

1872. J. S. Elkington, 'Tenth Report of Education, Victoria,' dated Feb. 14:

"My inquiries into the origin and habits of that troublesome parasite the larrikin (if I may adopt Constable Dalton's term) do not make me sanguine that compulsory primary instruction can do much for him, unless indirectly."

1875. 'Spectator' (Melbourne), May 15, p. 21, col. 3:

"On Sunday night an unfortunate Chinaman was so severely injured by the Richmond larrikins that his life was endangered."

1875. David Blair, in 'Notes and Queries,' July 24, p. 66:

"Bedouins, Street Arabs, Juvenile Roughs in London; Gamins in Paris; Bowery Boys in New York; Hoodlums to San Francisco; Larrikins in Melbourne. This last phrase is an Irish constable's broad pronunciation of 'larking' applied to the nightly street performances of these young scamps, here as elsewhere, a real social pestilence."

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 338:

"There is not a spare piece of ground fit for a pitch anywhere round Melbourne that is not covered with 'larrikins' from six years old upwards."

1889. Rev. J. H. Zillmann, 'Australian Life,' p. 159:

"It has become the name for that class of roving vicious young men who prowl about public-houses and make night hideous in some of the low parts of our cities. There is now the bush 'larrikin' as well as the town 'larrikin,' and it would be difficult sometimes to say which is the worse. Bush 'larrikins' have gone on to be bushrangers."

1890. 'The Argus,' May 26, p. 6, col. 7:

"He was set upon by a gang of larrikins, who tried to rescue the prisoner."

1891. 'Harper s Magazine,' July, p. 215, col. 2:

"The Melbourne 'larrikin' has differentiated himself from the London 'rough,' and in due season a term had to be developed to denote the differentiation."

1893. 'Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 12, p. 13, col. 2:

"Robert Louis Stevenson, in a recent novel, 'The Wrecker,' makes the unaccountable mistake of confounding the unemployed Domain loafer with the larrikin. This only shows that Mr. Stevenson during his brief visits to Sydney acquired but a superficial knowledge of the underlying currents of our social life."

1896. J. St. V. Welch, in 'Australasian Insurance and Banking Record,' May 19, p. 376:

"Whence comes the larrikin? that pest of these so-called over-educated colonies; the young loafer of from sixteen to eight-and-twenty. Who does not know him, with his weedy, contracted figure; his dissipated pimply face; his greasy forelock brushed flat and low over his forehead; his too small jacket; his tight-cut trousers; his high-heeled boots; his arms—with out-turned elbows—swinging across his stomach as he hurries along to join his 'push,' as he calls the pack in which he hunts the solitary citizen—-a pack more to be dreaded on a dark night than any pack of wolves—and his name in Sydney is legion, and in many cases he is a full-fledged voter."

1896. W. H. Whelan, in 'The Argus,' Jan. 7, p. 6, col. 3:

"Being clerk of the City Court, I know that the word originated in the very Irish and amusing way in which the then well-known Sergeant Dalton pronounced the word larking in respect to the conduct of 'Tommy the Nut,' a rowdy of the period, and others of both sexes in Stephen (now Exhibition) street.

"Your representative at the Court, the witty and clever 'Billy' O'Hea, who, alas! died too early, took advantage of the appropriate sound of the word to apply it to rowdyism in general, and, next time Dalton repeated the phrase, changed the word from verb to noun, where it still remains, anything to the contrary notwithstanding. I speak of what I do know, for O'Hea drew my attention to the matter at the time, and, if I mistake not, a reference to your files would show that it was first in the 'Argus' the word appeared in print."

("We can fully confirm Mr. Whelan's account of the origin of the word 'larrikin.'"—Ed. 'Argus.')

[But see quotation from 'Argus,' 1871.]

Larrikin, adj.

1878. 'The Australian,' vol. i. p. 522:

"Marks the young criminals as heroes in the eyes not only of the ostensible larrikin element . . ."

Larrikinalian, adj. (Not common.)

1893. 'Evening Standard,' July 5, p. 4, col. 4 (Leading Article):

"In the larrikinalian din which prevailed from start to finish . . ."

Larrikiness, n. a female larrikin.

1871. 'Collingwood Advertiser and Observer,' June 22, p. 3, col. 5:

"Evidence was tendered as to the manner of life led by these larikinesses . . . The juvenile larrikin element being strongly represented in court, all the boys were ordered out."

1871. Sir George Stephen, Q.C., 'Larrikinism,' a Lecture reported in 'Prahran Telegraph,' Sept. 23, p. 3, col. 1:

"I know many a larrikiness to whose voice I could listen by the hour with all my heart, without the least fear of her stealing it, even if it were worth the trouble."

1892. Gilbert Parker, 'Round the Compass in Australia,' p. 224:

"I have not found the larrikin [in Brisbane]. . . . The slouch-hat, the rakish jib, the drawn features are not to be seen; nor does the young larrikiness—that hideous outgrowth of Sydney and Melbourne civilization—exist as a class."

Larrikinism, n. the conduct of larrikins (q.v.).

1870. 'The Australian' (Richmond, Victoria), Sept. 10, p. 3, col. 3:

"A slight attempt at 'larrikinism' was manifested. . . . "

1871. J. J. Simpson, 'Recitations and Rhymes,' p. 17:

"Melbourne larrikinism is still very bad, By the papers each day we are told."

1875. 'Spectator' (Melbourne), June 19, p. 80, col. 2:

"He took as his theme the 'Dialect of Victoria,' which was coarse and vulgar to a degree. 'Larrikinism' was used as a synonym for 'blackguardism.'"

1876. A. P. Martin, 'Sweet Girl-Graduate,' p. 20:

"There is no doubt that its rising generation afforded material for letters in the newspapers, under the headings 'Larrikinism,' or, 'What shall we do with our boys?'"

1893. 'The Argus,' Feb. 23:

"Outbreaks of larrikinism are not always harmless ebullitions of animal spirits. Sometimes they have very serious results."

Laughing Jackass, n. See Jackass.

Launce, n. The Australian species of this fish is Congrogradus subducens, Richards., found in North- West Australia. The Launces or Sand-eels of the Northern Hemisphere belong to a different group.

Laurel, n. The English tree name is applied in Australia to various trees, viz.—

Alexandrian Laurel— Calophyllum inophyllum, Linn:, N.O. Guttiferae; not endemic in Australia.

Diamond-leaf L.— Pittosporum rhombifolium, A. Cunn., N.O. Pittosporeae.

Dodder L.— Cassytha filiformis, Linn., N.O. Lauraceae; called also Devil's Guts, not endemic in Australia.

Hedge L. (q.v.)— Pittosporum eugenioides, Cunn.

Moreton Bay L.— Cryptocarya australis, Benth., N.O. Lauraceae; called also Grey Sassafras.

Native L.— Pittosporum undulatum, Andr., N.O. Pittosporeae; called also Mock Orange (q.v.). Panax elegans, C. Moore and F. v. M., N.O. Araliaceae; which is also called Light or White Sycamore.

White L.— Cryptocarya glaucescens, R. Br., N.O. Lauraceae; for other names see Beech.

In Tasmania, the name Native Laurel is applied to Anopterus glandulosus, Lab., N.O. Saxifrageae. Peculiar to Tasmania.

The New Zealand Laurel is Laurelia novae-zelandiae; called also Sassafras.

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 292:

"Native Laurel, [also called] 'Mock Orange.' This tree is well worth cultivating on a commercial scale for the sake of the sweet perfume of its flowers."

Lavender, Native, n. a Tasmanian tree, Styphelia australis, R. Br., N.O. Epacrideae.

Lawyer, n. One of the English provincial uses of this word is for a thorny stem of a briar or bramble. In New Zealand, the name is used in this sense for the Rubus australis, N.O. Rosaceae, or Wild Raspberry-Vine (Maori, Tataramoa). The words Bush-Lawyer, Lawyer-Vine, and Lawyer-Palm, are used with the same signification, and are also applied in some colonies to the Calamus australis, Mart. (called also Lawyer- Cane), and to Flagellaria indua, Linn,, similar trailing plants.

1865. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'History of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia,' vol. ii. p. 157:

"Calamus Australis, a plant which Kennedy now saw for the first time. . . It is a strong climbing palm. From the roots as many as ninety shoots will spring, and they lengthen out as they climb for hundreds of feet, never thicker than a man's finger. The long leaves are covered with sharp spines; but what makes the plant the terror of the explorers, is the tendrils, which grow out alternately with the leaves. Many of these are twenty feet long, and they are covered with strong spines, curved slightly downwards."

1867. F. Hochstetter, 'New Zealand,' p. 135:

"Rubus Australis, the thorny strings of which scratch the hands and face, and which the colonists, therefore, very wittily call the 'bush-lawyer.'"

1882. T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 71:

"Torn by the recurved prickles of the bush-lawyer."

1889. Vincent Pyke, 'Wild Will Enderby,' p. 16:

"Trailing 'bush-lawyers,' intermingled with coarse bracken, cling lovingly to the rude stones."

1890. C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 103:

"In the mountain scrubs there grows a very luxuriant kind of palm (Calamus Australis), whose stem of a finger's thickness, like the East Indian Rotang-palm, creeps through the woods for hundreds of feet, twining round trees in its path, and at times forming so dense a wattle that it is impossible to get through it. The stem and leaves are studded with the sharpest thorns, which continually cling to you and draw blood, hence its not very polite name of lawyer-palm."

1891. A. J. North, 'Records of Australian Museum,' vol. i. p. 118:

"Who, in the brushes of the Tweed River, found a nest placed on a mass of 'lawyer-vines' (Calamus Australis)."

1892. Gilbert Parker, 'Round the Compass in Australia,' p. 256:

"'Look out,' said my companion, 'don't touch that lawyer-vine; it will tear you properly, and then not let you go.' Too late; my fingers touched it, and the vine had the best of it. The thorns upon the vine are like barbed spears, and they would, in the language of the Yankee, tear the hide off a crocodile."

1892. 'The Times,' [Reprint] 'Letters from Queensland,' p. 7:

"But no obstacle is worse for the clearer to encounter than the lawyer-vines where they are not burnt off. These are a form of palm which grows in feathery tufts along a pliant stalk, and fastens itself as a creeper upon other trees. From beneath its tufts of leaves it throws down trailing suckers of the thickness of stout cord, armed with sets of sharp red barbs. These suckers sometimes throw themselves from tree to tree across a road which has not been lately used, and render it as impassable to horses as so many strains of barbed wire. When they merely escape from the undergrowth of wild ginger and tree-fern and stinging-bush, which fringes the scrub, and coil themselves in loose loops upon the ground, they are dangerous enough as traps for either man or horse. In the jungle, where they weave themselves in and out of the upright growths, they form a web which at times defies every engine of destruction but fire."

Lawyer-Cane, Lawyer-Palm, and Lawyer-Vine. See Lawyer.

Lead, n. (pronounced leed), a mining term. In the Western United States and elsewhere, the term lead in mining is used as equivalent for lode. In Australia, the word lead is only used in reference to alluvial mining, and signifies the old river-bed in which gold is found.

1875. 'Spectator' (Melbourne), June 19, p. 75, col. 2:

"There was every facility for abstracting the gold in the rich lead of a neighbour."

1880. Fison and Howitt, 'Kamilaroi and Kurnai,' p. 272 [Note]:

"The expression 'deep lead' refers to those ancient river-courses which are now only disclosed by deep-mining operations."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. v. p. 55:

"Taking the general matter of 'leads' or dead rivers, it chiefly obtained that if gold were found on one portion of them, it extended to all the claims within a considerable distance."

Lead, to strike the. See above. Used figuratively for to succeed.

1874. Garnet Walch, 'Head over Heels,' p. 74:

"We could shy up our caps for a feller, As soon as he struck the lead."

Leadbeater, n. applied to a Cockatoo, Cacatua leadbeateri, Vig., called Leadbeaters Cockatoo by Major Mitchell (q.v.).

1890. Lyth, 'Golden South,' c. xiv. p. 127:

"The birds are very beautiful—the Blue Mountain and Lowrie parrots . . . leadbeater, and snow-white cockatoos."

Leaf-insect, n. See Phasmid.

Lease, n. a piece of land leased for mining purposes. In England, the word is used for the document or legal right concerning the land. In Australia, it is used for the land itself. Compare Right-of-way.

1890. 'Goldfields of Victoria,' p. 15:

"A nice block of stone was crushed from Johnson's lease."

Lease in perpetuity, a statutory expression in the most recent land legislation of New Zealand, indicating a specific mode of alienating Crown lands,. It is a lease for 999 years at a permanent rental equal to 4% on the capital value, which is not subject to revision.

Leather-head, n. another name for the Friar-bird (q.v.), Philemon corniculatus, Lath. See Tropidorhynchus.

1847. L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 461:

"The Leatherhead with its constantly changing call and whistling."

1855. W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 58:

"The leather-heads utter their settled phrase 'Off we go! off we go!' in the woods, or they come to suck honey from the Melianthus major, which stands up like a huge artichoke plant, tipped with dark red plumes of flowers."

1860. G. Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 233:

"Among the Honey-suckers is that singular-looking bird, the Leatherhead, or Bald-headed Friar (Tropidorhynchus corniculatus); it is commonly seen upon the topmost branches of lofty trees, calling 'Poor Soldier,' 'Pimlico,' 'Four o'clock,' and uttering screaming sounds. It feeds upon insects, wild fruits, and any sweets it can procure from the flowers of the Banksia and Gum-trees."

Leather-Jacket, n.

(1) A name applied popularly and somewhat confusedly to various trees, on account of the toughness of their bark— (a) Eucalyptus punctata, De C., Hickory Eucalypt (q.v.); (b) Alphitonia excelsa, Reiss., or Cooperswood; (c) Ceratopetalum, or Coachwood; (d) Cryptocarya meissnerii, F. v. M.; (e) Weinmannia benthami, F. v. M.

(2) A fish of the family Sclerodermi, Monacanthus ayraudi, Quoy. and Gaim., and numerous other species of Monocanthus. Leather-Jackets are wide-spread in Australian seas. The name is given elsewhere to other fishes. See File-fish and Pig-fish.

1770. 'Capt. Cook's Journal,' edition Wharton, 1893, p. 246:

"They had caught a great number of small fish, which the sailors call leather jackets, on account of their having a very thick skin; they are known in the West Indies."

1773. 'Hawkesworth's Voyages,' vol. iii. p. 503—'Cook's First Voyage,' May 4, 1770 (at Botany Bay):

"Small fish, which are well known in the West Indies, and which our sailors call Leather jackets, because their skin is remarkably thick."

1789. W. Tench, 'Expedition to Botany Bay, p. 129:

"To this may be added bass, mullets, skaits, soles, leather-jackets, and many other species."

(3) A kind of pancake.

1846. G. H. Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 151:

"A plentiful supply of 'leatherjackets' (dough fried in a pan)."

1853. Mossman and Banister, 'Australia Visited and Revisited,' p. 126:

"Our party, upon this occasion, indulged themselves, in addition to the usual bush fare, with what are called 'Leather jackets,' an Australian bush term for a thin cake made of dough, and put into a pan to bake with some fat. . . The Americans indulge in this kind of bread, giving them the name of 'Puff ballooners,' the only difference being that they place the cake upon the bare coals . . ."

1855. R. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 117:

"The leather-jacket is a cake of mere flour and water, raised with tartaric acid and carbonate of soda instead of yeast, and baked in the frying-pan; and is equal to any muffin you can buy in the London shops."

Leather-wood, n. i.q. Pinkwood (q.v.).

Leawill, or Leeangle (with other spellings), n. aboriginal names for a native weapon, a wooden club bent at the striking end. The name is Victorian, especially of the West; probably derived from lea or leang, or leanyook, a tooth. The aboriginal forms are langeel, or leanguel, and lea-wil, or le-ow-el. The curve evidently helped the English termination, angle.

1845. Charles Griffith, 'Present State and Prospects of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales,' p. 155:

"The liangle is, I think, described by Sir Thomas Mitchell. It is of the shape of a pickaxe, with only one pick. Its name is derived from another native word, leang, signifying a tooth. It is a very formidable weapon, and used only in war."

1846. J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. II. c. xiii. p. 479:

"A weapon used by the natives called a Liangle, resembling a miner's pick."

1863. M. K. Beveridge,' Gatherings among the Gum-trees,' p. 56:

"Let us hand to hand attack him With our Leeawells of Buloite."

Ibid. (In Glossary) p. 83:

"Leeawell, a kind of war club."

1867. G. Gordon McCrae, 'Mimba,' p. 9:

"The long liangle's nascent form Fore-spoke the distant battle-storm."

1886. R. Henty, 'Australiana,' p. 21:

"His war-club or leeangle."

1889. P. Beveridge, 'Aborigines of Victoria and Riverina, p. 67:

"Of those [waddies] possessing—we might almost say—-a national character, the shapes of which seem to have come down generation after generation, from the remotest period, the Leawill is the most deadly-looking weapon. It is usually three feet long, and two and a half inches thick, having a pointed head, very similar both in shape and size to a miner's driving pick; in most cases the oak (Casuarina) is used in the manufacture of this weapon; it is used in close quarters only, and is a most deadly instrument in the hands of a ruthless foe, or in a general melee such as a midnight onslaught."

Leeangle, n. i.q. Leawill (q.v.).

Leek, n. a small parrot. See Greenleek.

Leek, Native, n. a poisonous Australian plant, Bulbine bulbosa, Haw., N.O. Liliaceae. Called also Native Onion. Its racemes of bright yellow flowers make the paddocks gay in spring.

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 121:

"'Native Onion,' 'Native Leek.' Mr. W. n. Hutchinson, Sheep Inspector, Warrego, Queensland, reports of this plant: 'Its effects on cattle are . . . continually lying down, rolling, terribly scoured, mucous discharge from the nose.'"

Leg, n. mining term. a peculiar form of quartz-reef, forming a nearly vertical prolongation of the saddle.

1890. 'The Argus,' June x6th, p. 6, col. 1:

"It may also be observed that in payable saddle formations a slide intersects the reef above the saddle coming from the west, and turning east with a wall of the east leg, where the leg of reef is observed to go down deeper, and to carry a greater amount of gold than in ordinary cases."

Legitimacy, n. See quotation. [Old and now unused slang.]

1827. P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 16:

"Legitimacy—a colonial term for designating the cause of the emigration of a certain portion of our population; i.e. having legal reasons for making the voyage."

[So also at p. 116, "Legitimates"]

Leguminous Ironbark, n. a name given by Leichhardt to the Queensland tree Erythrophaeum laboucherii, F. v. M., N.O. Leguminosae. See Ironbark.

Leichhardt, or Leichhardt-Tree, n. an Australian timber-tree, Morinda citrifolia, Linn., N.O. Rubiaceae; called also Canary-wood and Indian Mulberry. In Queensland, the name is applied to Sarcocephalus cordatus, Miq., N.O. Rubiaceae, a large timber-tree of North Queensland, much used in building.

1874. M. K. Beveridge, 'Lost Life,' p. 40:

"Groaning beneath the friendly shade That by a Leichhardt-tree was made."

1885. H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia, p. 258:

"The Leichhardt is a very symmetrical tree, that grows to a height of about sixty feet, and has leaves rather like a big laurel."

Leichhardt-Bean, n. See Bean.

Leichhardt's Clustered-Fig, n. i.q. Clustered Fig. See Fig.

Lemon, Desert, n. See Desert Lemon.

Lemon-scented Gum, n. See Gum.

Lemon-scented Ironbark, n. a name given to the Queensland tree Eucalyptus staigeriana, F. v. M., N.O. Myrtaceae. See Ironbark. The foliage of this tree yields a large quantity of oil, equal in fragrance to that of lemons.

Lemon-Sole, n. In England, the name is applied to an inferior species of Sole. In New South Wales, it is given to Plagusia unicolor, Mad., of the family Pleuronectidae or Flat-fishes. In New Zealand, it is another name for the New Zealand Turbot (q.v.).

Lemon, Wild, n. a timber tree, Canthium latifolium, F. v. M., N.O. Rubiaceae; called also Wild Orange.

Lemon-Wood, n. one of the names given by settlers to the New Zealand tree called by Maoris Tarata (q.v.), or Mapau (q.v.). It is Pittosporum eugenoides, A. Cunn., N.O. Pittosporeae.

Leopard-Tree, n. an Australian tree, Flindersia maculosa (or Strezleckiana), F. v. M., N.O. Meliaceae; called also Spotted-Tree (q.v.), and sometimes, in Queensland, Prickly Pine.

Lerp, n. an aboriginal word belonging to the Mallee District of Victoria (see Mallee). Sometimes spelt leurp, or laap. The aboriginal word means 'sweet.' It is a kind of manna secreted by an insect, Psylla eucalypti, and found on the leaves of the Mallee, Eucalyptus dumosa. Attention was first drawn to it by Mr. Thomas Dobson (see quotations). A chemical substance called Lerpamyllum is derived from it; see Watts' 'Dictionary of Chemistry,' Second Supplement, 1875, s.v.

1848. W. Westgarth, 'Australia Felix,' p. 73:

"The natives of the Wimmera prepare a luscious drink from the laap, a sweet exudation from the leaf of the mallee (Eucalyptus dumosa)."

1850. T. Dobson, 'Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land,' vol. i. p. 235:

"The white saccharine substance called 'lerp,' by the Aborigines in the north-western parts of Australia Felix, and which has attracted the attention of chemists, under the impression that it is a new species of manna, originates with an insect of the tribe of Psyllidae, and order Hemiptera."

1850. Ibid. p. 292::

"Insects which, in the larva state, have the faculty of elaborating from the juices of the gum-leaves on which they live a glutinous and saccharine fluid, whereof they construct for themselves little conical domiciles."

1878. R. Brough Smyth, 'The Aborigines of Victoria,' vol. i. p. 211:

"Another variety of manna is the secretion of the pupa of an insect of the Psylla family and obtains the name of lerp among the aborigines. At certain seasons of the year it is very abundant on the leaves of E. dumosa, or mallee scrub . . ."

Lift, v. tr. to drive to market from the run.

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' c. iv. p. 45:

"I haven't lifted a finer mob this season."

1890. 'The Argus,' June 14, p. 4, col. 2:

"We lifted 7000 sheep."

Light-horseman, n. obsolete name for a fish; probably the fish now called a Sweep (q.v.).

1789. W. Tench, 'Expedition to Botany Bay,' p. 129:

"The French once caught [in Botany Bay] near two thousand fish in one day, of a species of grouper, to which, from the form of a bone in the head resembling a helmet, we have given the name of light horseman."

1793. J. Hunter, 'Voyage,' p. 410 [Aboriginal Vocabulary]:

"Woolamie, a fish called a light-horseman." [But see Wollomai.]

1802. G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' c. iv. p. 78:

"A boat belonging to the Sirius caught near fifty large fish, which were called light-horsemen from a bone that grew out of the head like a helmet."

Lightwood, n. a name given to various trees. See Blackwood. It is chiefly applied to Acacia melanoxylon, R. Br., N.O. Leguminosae. See quotations, 1843 and 1889.

1843. I. Backhouse. 'Narrative of a Visit to the Australian Colonies,' p. 48:

"Lightwood—Acacia Melanoxylon . . . It derives its name from swimming in water, while the other woods of V. D. Land, except the pines, generally sink. In some parts of the Colony it is called Blackwood, on account of its dark colour."

1852. G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes' (edition 1855), p. 515:

"Some immense logs of 'light wood,' a non lucendo, darker than mahogany."

1864. J. Rogers, 'New Rush,' p. 17:

"Arms so brown and bare, to look at them Recalls to mind the lightwood's rugged stem."

1866. H. Simcox, 'Rustic Rambles,' p. 54:

"The numerous lightwood trees with sombre shade Tend to enhance the richness of the glade."

1884. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. xv. p. 111:

"The ex-owner of Lyne wished himself back among the old lightwood trees."

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 359:

"Called 'Blackwood' on account of the very dark colour of the mature wood. It is sometimes called 'Lightwood' (chiefly in South Tasmania, while the other name is given in North Tasmania and other places), but this is an inappropriate name. It is in allusion to its weight as compared with Eucalyptus timbers. It is the 'Black Sally' of Western New South Wales, the 'Hickory' of the southern portion of that colony, and is sometimes called 'Silver Wattle.' This is considered by some people to be the most valuable of all Australian timbers.

It is hard and close-grained; much valued for furniture, picture-frames, cabinet-work, fencing, bridges, etc., railway, and other carriages, boat-building, for tool-handles, gun-stocks, naves of wheels, crutches, parts of organs, pianofortes (sound-boards and actions), etc."

Light Yellow-wood, i.q. Long-Jack (q.v.).

Lignum (1), or Lignum-Vitae, n. The name is applied to several trees, as Myrtus acmenioides, F. v. M., called also White Myrtle; Acacia falcata, Willd., N.O. Leguminosae, called also Hickory and Sally; but chiefly to Eucalyptus polyanthema, Schau., N.O. Myrtaceae.

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 505:

"[E. polyanthema.] The 'Red Box' of South-eastern Australia. Called also 'Brown Box,' 'Grey Box,' and 'Bastard Box.' 'Poplar-leaved Gum' is another name, but it is most commonly known as 'Lignum Vitae' because of its tough and hard wood. Great durability is attributed to this wood, though the stems often become hollow in age, and thus timber of large dimensions is not readily afforded. It is much sought after for cogs, naves and felloes; it is also much in demand for slabs in mines, while for fuel it is unsurpassed. (Mueller.) Its great hardness is against its general use."

(2) A bushman's contraction for any species of the wiry plants called polygonum.

1880. Mrs. Meredith, 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' [writing of the Lachlan district, New South Wales] p. 180:

"The poor emus had got down into the creek amongst the lignum bushes for a little shade . . . I do not know what a botanist would call them; they are something like cane, but with large leaves, which all animals are fond of, and they grow about eight feet high in the creeks and gullies."

1896. H. Lawson, 'When the World was Wide,' p. 135:

"By mulga scrub and lignum plain."

Lilac, n. name given in Australia to the tree Melia composita, Willd., N.O. Meliaceae, called Cape Lilac. It is not endemic in Australia, and is called "Persian Lilac "in India. In Tasmania the name of Native Lilac is given to Prostanthera rotundifolia, R. Br., N.O. Labiatae, and by Mrs. Meredith to Tetratheca juncea, Smith, of the Linnean Order, Octandria.

1793. J. E. Smith, 'Specimen of Botany of New Holland,' p. 5:

"Tetratheca juncea, Rushy Tetratheca [with plate]."

1852. Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 69:

"A little purple flower, which is equally common, so vividly recalls to my mind, both by its scent and colour, an Old-World favorite, that I always know it as the native Lilac (Tetratheca juncea)."

Lily, Darling, n. a bulbous plant, Crinum flaccidum, Herb., N.O. Amaryllideae; called also the Murray Lily. (See Lily, Murray.)

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 20:

"The 'Darling Lily.' This exceedingly handsome white-flowered plant, which grows back from the Darling, has bulbs which yield a fair arrowroot. On one occasion, near the town of Wilcannia, a man earned a handsome sum by making this substance when flour was all but unattainable."

Lily, Flax, n. See Flax-Lily, and Flax, New Zealand.

Lily, Giant-, or Spear-, n. a fibre plant, Doryanthes excelsa, Corr., N.O. Amaryllideae.

1860. G. Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 339:

"The Doryanthes excelsa, a gigantic Lily of Australia, is a magnificent plant, with a lofty flowering spike. The bunches or clusters of crimson flowers are situated in the summit of the flowering spike . . . The diameter of a cluster of blossoms is about 14 inches . . . The flower-buds are of a brilliant crimson, and the anthers of the stamens are, in the recently expanded flower, of a dark-green colour."

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 621:

"'Spear Lily.' 'Giant Lily.' The leaves are a mass of fibre, of great strength, which admits of preparation either by boiling or maceration, no perceptible difference as to quality or colour being apparent after heckling. Suitable for brush making, matting, etc."

Lily, Gordon, n. a Tasmanian plant and its flower, Blandfordia marginata, Herb., N.O. Liliaceae, and other species of Blandfordia (q.v.).

1835. Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 72:

"Blandfordia nobilis. This splendid plant is common on the west coast and on the shores of the Mersey. It bears a head of pendulous scarlet blossoms tipped with yellow, one inch long, rising out of a stalk of from 1 1/2 to 3 feet long, from between two opposite series of strapshaped leaves. It is named after George [Gordon] Marquis of Blandford, son of the second Duke of Marlborough."

Lily, Murray, n. i.q. Darling Lily. See above.

1877. F. v. Mueller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 119:

"This showy genus Crinum furnishes also Victoria with a beautiful species, the Murray Lily (Crinum flaccidum), not however to be found away from the Murray-River southward."

Lilly-Pilly, n. name given to a large timber tree, Eugenia smithii, Poir., N.O. Myrtaceae. The bark is rich in tanning. Sometimes called Native Banana.

1860. G. Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 327:

"The Lillypilly-trees, as they are named by the colonists, consist of several species of Acmena, and are all of elegant growth and dense and handsome foliage."

1879. Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales,' p. 134:

"Eugenia Smithii, or Lilli pilli, and Melodorum Leichhardtii are also fair eating. The latter goes by the name of the native banana though it is very different from a banana, and in reality allied to the custard apple."

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 29:

"'Lilly Pilly.' The fruits are eaten by aboriginals, small boys, and birds. They are formed in profusion, are acidulous and wholesome. They are white with a purplish tint, and up to one inch in diameter."

Lily, Rock, n. an orchid, Dendrobium speciosum, Smith, N.O. Orchideae. although not a Lily, it is always so called, especially in Sydney, where it is common.

1879. H. n. Moseley, 'Notes by Naturalist on Challenger,' p. 270:

"A luxuriant vegetation, with huge masses of Stagshorn Fern (Platycerium) and 'rock-lilies' (orchids), and a variety of timbers, whilst there are Tree-ferns and small palms in the lateral shady gullies."

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 22:

"'Rock Lily.' The large pseudobulbs have been eaten by the aboriginals; they contain little nutritive matter."

Lily, Water, n. There are several indigenous native varieties of the N.O. Nymphaeceae—Cabombia peltata, Pursh; Nymphaea gigantea, Hook. (Blue Water-lily).

Lily, Yellow, n. a Tasmanian name for Bulbine bulbosa, Haw., N.O. Liliaceae. See Leek, Native.

Lime, Native, n. an Australian tree, Citrus australasica, F. v. M., N.O. Rutaceae; called also Finger Lime and Orange. But the appellation of Native Lime is more generally given to Citrus australis, Planch., N.O. Rutaceae.

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 16:

"'Native Lime. Orange.' The fruit, which is an inch and a half in diameter, and almost globular, yields an agreeable beverage from its acid juice."

Ling, n. a fish. The name is given in England to various fishes, from their length. In New Zealand and Tasmania, it is applied to Genypterus blacodes, Forst.; also called Cloudy Bay Cod. Lotella marginata, Macl., is called Ling, in New South Wales, and Beardie. Genypterus belongs to the Ophidiidae and Lotella to the next family, the Gadidae.

Lobster, n. The name is often carelessly used in Australia for the Crayfish (q.v.).

Lobster's-Claw, n. another name for Sturt's Desert Pea (q.v.).

Locust, n. name popularly but quite erroneously applied to insects belonging to two distinct orders.

(1) Insects belonging to the order Hemiptera. The great black Cicada, Cicada moerens, Germ., and the great green Cicada, Cyclochila australasiae, Donov.

(2) Insects belonging to the order Orthoptera, such as the great green gum-tree grasshopper, Locusta vigentissima, Serv., or the Australian yellow-winged locust, Oedipoda musica, Fab.

1846. J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. I. c. ix. p. 285:

"The trees swarmed with large locusts (the Cicada), quite deafening us with their shrill buzzing noise."

1862. F. J. Jobson, 'Australia,' c. iv. p. 104:

"We heard everywhere on the gumtrees the cricket-like insects—usually called locusts by the colonists—hissing their reed-like monotonous noise."

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